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Flashcards in ch. 12 Deck (97)
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1

two major divisions of the nervous system

CNS and PNS

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brain and spinal cord

central nervous system

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cranial and spinal nerves

peripheral nervous system

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2 functional divisions of the nervous system

afferent division
efferent division

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brings sensory information to CNS from receptors

afferent division

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carries motor commands from CNS to effectors

efferent division

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muscles and glands

effectors

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2 components of the efferent division

somatic ns and autonomic ns

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controls skeletal muscle contractions

somatic ns

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provides automatic regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands

autonomic ns

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functional units of the nervous system

neurons

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short extensions from the cell body; usually many and highly branched

dendrites

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functions of dendrites

receives info from other neurons

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one extends from cell body
long, slender, cylindrical process with uniform diameter
end has many fine branches which end at synaptic terminals

axon

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function of axon

conduct impulses away from cell

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small, numerous dendrites; no axon

anaxonic neurons

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fx: poorly understood

anaxonic neurons

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in brain and in special sense organs

anaxonic neurons

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1 dendrite and 1 axon with cell body between the 2

bipolar neuronns

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in specialized parts of eye nose and ears; rare

bipolar neurons

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fx: relay info about sight, smell or hearing

bipolar neurons

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dendrites and axon are continuous and cell body lies off to side

unipolar neurons

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fx: carry info/senses into CNS

unipolar neurons

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most common neuron in CNS

mulltipolar neurons

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fx: control skeletal muscles

multipolar neurons

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carry instructions from cns to effectors

motor efferent neurons

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outnumber all other types of neurons combined

interneurons

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fx: distribution of sensory info and coordination of motor activity; involved with all higher functions

interneurons

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carry impulses from sensory receptors to cns

sensory (afferent) neurons

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are unipolar and cell bodies are located in ganglia

sensory neurons