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Flashcards in Ch. 11 Firefighter Survival Deck (63)
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Your department can take the following 3 steps to immediately reduce rates of FF injury and mortality even further:

Improve hazard awareness and recognition.
Provide emergency escape or self-rescue capability.
Provide rescue capability by deploying RIT's (steps-RIT)


Norman's 3 Rules of Survival

Never put yourself in a position DEPENDING ON SOMEONE ELSE TO COME AND GET YOU
Always know where your escape route is
Always know where your SECOND escape route is


3 FF Survival Course Topics

Hazard awareness.
Escape training.
FF accountability (topic-accountability).


(Hazard Awareness)6 Questions FF must find answers for as soon as possible:

What is the occupancy?
Where are the occupants?
Where is the fire?
How do we get in?
How do we get out when things go wrong?
What is happening to the building?


If you are CUT OFF by fire, limited options (3)

Area of refuge (close as many doors as possible)
Call for help (radio, pass alarm and voice)
Begin seeking another escape route or area of refuge


Replacing cylinder is useful in certain situations (4)

Fires in:
-holds of ships
-windowless buildings


Executing emergency bailout (ladder):

Ladder just at or under the sill.
One arm between 1st and 2nd rungs, hand grabs 2nd rung, palm up.
Other hand, grab 3rd rung, palm down then ROLL OUT.


_______ and ______ have definite impacts on firefighter SAFETY as well as COMFORT. (Personal escape system)

Type of rope
Packing method


MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR factor when using FF hand tools as anchor point:

Load applied at a 90 degree angle to window opening in the wall


Tool as anchor point. The key is to place the rope attachment to the tool at the point where:

Tool crosses the CORNER of the window


Parts of emergency body wrap

Rope out window, grab 3 ft of slack.
Wrap underneath armpits, around back, over SCBA preferably.
Bring 2 sides together and grasp with one hand in front.
Roll out window (2 sections of rope grasped).
Bring free hand up grasp end of rope under that armpit.
Separate hands horizontally-no wider than shoulder width-use body to create friction


FF deaths _____per year in 1970's, ____ per year in 1990's to ____ in 2010.

140, 100, 72 (14 in structure fires)


Positioning of tool for anchor point, rope slide (steps)

Rope around tool.
Diagonally across corner of window opening (90 degree)
Choice of tool IS NOT critical.
Key - rope attachment to tool at point where TOOL CROSSES CORNER OF WINDOW.
Apply tension, don't let tension off.


5 critical points for rope slide

Don't allow hands to spread farther then shoulder-width.
Take all slack out of rope just prior to exiting window to avoid sudden impact load (break ribs, pull anchor free, destroy rope).
Training is vital to success.
Great deal of friction (coat and gloves a must).
Use NFPA rescue-rated rope (suitable- 1 person load/personal use)
1983 NFPA rope


3 copies of riding list (name and assigned duty)

Kept by officer on duty
On dashboard of apparatus
Copy at command post {large-scale operations}


Roll call - wireless system
3 status conditions:

-need assistance


Roll call ordered/recorded (5):

-pass activation
-sudden fire extension
-structural collapse
-orders to withdraw


8 situations for mayday

Injury prevents IMMEDIATE escape
SCBA low air - exit beyond range
Entrapped/hung up 30 or less
Disoriented/lost more than 30 sec
Missing/unaccounted for more than 60 sec
Unconscious/life-threatening injury
Collapse is imminent


Four prereq's for SUCCESSFUL RIT: (PPTT)



5 RIT tools for every member

SCBA with pass.
2 light, large and secondary.
Cutters or knife.
Spare cylinder (on apparatus).
40 ft of 3/8 in. rope (NFPA rated)


2 general types of search

Large open space (gymnasium).
Complex area (Home Depot)


If no TIC available, MANUALLY SWEEP each area. Can be done with:

Fan search (thorough, not fast) **8 ft arc**
T pattern (fast, not thorough)


Steps for rope slide (4)

Find window
Clear window (glass and frame)
Check for venting below
-yes-drop rope last second
-no-deploy rope and find anchor
Suitable anchor point


Before attempting and emergency escape, all members should ________________.

First transmit a mayday


When breaching a wall for escape or clearing lath and plaster to get through a wall, it will leave you a space about ____________.

14 in. space between the studs


If inside a room and trying to breach an inward opening door, kicking with both feet can be of value if ______________.

There is a panel on the lower section that can be kicked out


Many types and styles of escape rope (3)


NFPA 1983


_______ is the most crucial part of the personal escape system

The rope


Firefighter accountability has several facets (3)

Knowing WHO is on scene.
Knowing WHERE they are operating.
Ascertaining their physical CONDITION.


To conduct a head count requires some additional equipment, the most important is _____________. At an absolute minimum, at least one radio should accompany each _________, so one radio may serve ________.

A portable radio.

Hose team.
Two people