Ch. 11: Decontamination Flashcards Preview

HazMat: Managing the Incident 4e > Ch. 11: Decontamination > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 11: Decontamination Deck (29)
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1

What needs to be an adaptive and flexible process that respects the hazards and behavior of the contaminants, as well as human behavior in stressful and changing events?

Decon

2

What process basically involves the physical removal of contaminants from personnel and equipment?

the process of decontamination

3

What is the first rule of decontamination?

avoid contamination

4

What is any form of hazardous material that physically remains on people, animals, or objects?

contamination

5

What means that a person has been subjected to a toxic substance or harmful physical agent through any route of entry into the body?

exposure

6

What is the most common cause of responder and response equipment contaminations?

From poor organization and discipline exercised during decontamination and clean-up operations.

7

What are the two general types of contamination?

surface and permeation

8

What are found on the outer surface of a material but have not been absorbed into the material?

surface contaminants

9

What are generally viewed as being absorbed into a material at the molecular level but they also permeate into the microscopic physical spaces between fibers and fabrics?

permeation contaminants

10

What occurs when a person comes in direct physical contact with a contaminant or when a person comes into contact with any object that has the contaminant on it?

direct contamination

11

What occurs when a person who is already contaminated makes contact with a person or object that was not previously contaminated?

secondary contamination

12

What is the process of altering the chemical structure of the contaminant through the use of a second chemical or material?

chemical degradation

13

What is the process used on corrosives to bring the pH of the final solution to somewhere within the range of pH 5 to 9?

neutralization

14

What is a process by which a contaminant physically or chemically bonds to another object or is encapsulated by it?

solidification

15

What is the process used to inactivate (kill) recognized pathogenic microorganisms?

disinfection

16

What are the two major categories of disinfectants?

chemical and antiseptic disinfectants

17

What is the process of destroying all microorganisms in or on an object?

sterilization

18

When should the effectiveness of any decon method be assessed?

At the beginning of the decon operation and periodically throughout the operation.

19

What is the ideal outdoor decon site?

upwind and uphill from the incident, close enough to the scene to limit the spread of contaminants

20

What consideration should be given when conducting decon indoors?

Quick access such as hallways, type and slope of floor, floor drains, and ventilation airflows in the area.

21

What is the initial phase of the decontamination process during which the amount of surface contaminant is significantly reduced?

gross decontamination

22

What is the second phase of decontamination process that is designed to physically or chemically remove surface contaminants to a safe and acceptable level?

secondary decontamination

23

What is the physical process of immediately reducing contamination of individuals in potentially life threatening situations with or without the formal establishment of a decon corridor?

emergency decontamination

24

What is the most important concept of emergency decon?

Clean the contaminated person as soon as possible.

25

What is the planned and systematic process of reducing contamination to a level of ALARA?

technical decontamination

26

What is a multistep process in which contaminated individuals are cleansed with the assistance of trained personnel?

technical decontamination

27

What is established when large numbers of people need to be decontaminated at the scene of a hazmat emergency?

mass decontamination

28

What activities consists of any work performed at the emergency scene by emergency responders, which is directed toward removing the contamination from protective clothing, tools, dirt, water, and so on?

clean-up activities

29

What should be held for those individuals involved in decontamination and clean-up as soon as practical?

a debriefing