Ch 1: Introduction to Anatomy and Phsiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 1: Introduction to Anatomy and Phsiology Deck (45)
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1

Anatomy

the study of form/structure

2

gross/ macroscopic

structures visible without a microscope

3

surface

general form and superficial markings

4

systemic

structure of organ systems

5

pathological

abnormal or diseased cells/ tissues/ organs

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regional

body regions

7

cytology

microscopic/ cells

8

histology

microscopic/ tissues

9

developmental

embryonic/ fetal

10

ultrastructure

study of body structures down to the molecular level, using an electron microscope

11

radiographic/ medical imaging

study of internal body structures using imaging

12

Radiography:

use of x-rays which are high energy and can penetrate soft tissues,
can lead to mutations which can lead to cancer and birth defects
used in dentistry, diagnosis of fractures and examination of the chest

13

Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan

patient is moved through a ring shaped machine that emits low insensitivity x rays on one side and receives them with a detector on the other side
a computer then analyzes the signals from the detector
used in identifying tumors, aneurysms, cerebral hemorrhages, and kidney stones

14

Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

An injection of radioactively labeled glucose which emits positrons
These positrons collide with electrons and a pair of gamma rays is emitted which can be detected by sensors and analyzed by a computer
The computer displays a color image that shows which tissues were using the most or least glucose at the moment
Used to assess the metabolic state of a tissue and to distinguish which tissue is most active at a given time
Can diagnose the extent of heart tissue damage, diagnosis of cancer and tumor status

15

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Patient is placed in a cylindrical chamber surrounded by a large electromagnet that creates a very strong magnetic field
Hydrogen atoms in the tissues align themselves with the magnetic field
Technologist turns on a field of radio waves which causes the hydrogen atoms to absorb additional energy and to align in a different direction
A computer analyzes the emitted energy to produce and image of the body
Can be used to see through the skull and vertebral column to see images of nervous tissue

16

Sonography

A hand help device is held firmly to the skin produces high frequency ultrasound waves and receives the signals that echo back from internal organs
Useful I'm obstetrics but not useful in examining bones or lungs

17

Physiology

The Study of function
Feedback mechanisms (negative and positive )

18

Negative feedback mechanism

Body reverses the stimulus (change) as quickly as possible to maintain homeostasis or equilibrium,
More common type of feedback mechanism

19

Temperature regulation

Negative feedback mechanism
1. Increase in body temperature (stimulus)
2. Sensed by thermoreceptors
3. Thermoreceptors send message to hypothalamus (regulator)
4. Hypothalamus sends message to targets (effectors) such as sweat glands to cause sweating
5. Person sweats; causes decrease in body temperature back to nor,al (have reversed the stimulus )

20

Hormone regulation

Negative feedback mechanism
If an endocrine gland hyper secretes it's hormone the body tries to inhibit it
If an endocrine gland hypo-secretes its hormone the body tries to stimulate it

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Positive Feedback Mechanism

body allows the stimulus (change) to continue and intensify until the desired result is achieved

22

Labor and Childbirth
( + feedback)

uterine contractions begin, and dilation of cervix begins (stimulus)
uterine contractions continue, become stronger, and more frequent; dilation of cervix continues
birth of baby
uterine contractions stop; dilation of cervix stops
whole process under control of oxytocin (pituitary hormone)

23

Blood Clotting
( + feedback)

the body continues to produce enough fibrin to plug up damaged blood vessel

24

What is the hierarchy of the human structure from most complex to least complex?

Organism
Organ system
organ
tissue
cell
organelle
molecule
atom

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Organism

single, complete individual

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Organ System

group of organs with a unique collective function

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organ

structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function

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tissue

a mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a particular region of an organ and performs a specific function

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cell

smallest unit of the organism that carries out all the basic functions of life

30

organelle

microscopic structure in a cell that carry out its individual functions