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Flashcards in CF03 - Critical Thinking Deck (35)
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1

Critical thinking

the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication as a guide to belief and action.

2

5 Characteristics That Embody A Proficient Critical Thinker

A) open-mindedness
B) healthy skepticism
C) intellectual humility
D) free thinking
E) high motivation.

3

Open-minded and healthy skepticism

means seeking out the facts, information sources, and reasoning to support issues we intend to judge; examining issues from as many sides as possible; rationally looking for the good and bad points of the various sides examined; accepting the fact that we may be in error ourselves; and maintaining the goal of getting at the truth rather than trying to please others or find fault with their views.

4

Intellectual humility

adhering tentatively to recently acquired opinions; being prepared to examine new evidence and arguments,to stop thinking that complex issues can be reduced to matters of ‘right & wrong’ or ‘black & white’

5

Free thinker

To think freely, one must restrain one’s desire to believe because of social pressures to conform.

6

Highly motivated

willing to put in the necessary work sufficient to evaluate the multiple sides of issues.

7

3 Approaches for Evaluating Information

Three effective approaches for evaluating information are to ensure information is credible, unbiased, and accurate.

8

Reactive Thinking (System-1)

Many of the judgments that you make every day are automatic or reactive, rather than reflective.Good decisions emerging from system-1 thinking often feel intuitive.

9

Reflective Thinking (System-2)

broad and informed problem-solving and deliberate decision making. It is useful for judgments in unfamiliar situations. Argument making is often part of the deliberation process when making system-2 decisions. Critical thinking is considered system-2 thinking

10

4 Categories of Hindrances to Critical Thinking

1 Basic Human Limitations
2 Use Of Language
3 Faulty Logic Or Perception
4 Psychological Or Sociological Pitfalls

11

Basic Human Limitations
(Category of Hindrance to Critical Thinking)

1 Confirmation Bias and Selective Thinking
2 False Memories and Confabulation
3 personal biases and prejudices
4 Physical and Emotional Hindrances Testimonial evidence
5 Testimonial evidence

12

Confirmation Bias and Selective Thinking

Hindrance to Critical Thinking - Basic Human Limitation
- the process whereby one tends to notice and look for what confirms one‘s beliefs, and to ignore, not look for, or undervalue what contradicts one‘s beliefs.

13

False Memories and Confabulation

Hindrance to Critical Thinking - Basic Human Limitation - being unaware that our memories are often manufactured to fill in the gaps in our recollection

14

personal biases and prejudices

Hindrance to Critical Thinking - Basic Human Limitation - result from our own unique life experiences and worldview, which make it difficult to remain objective and think critically.

15

Physical and Emotional Hindrances

Hindrance to Critical Thinking - Basic Human Limitation - These include stress, fatigue, drugs, and related hindrances.

16

Testimonial evidence

Hindrance to Critical Thinking - Basic Human Limitation
- We should not rely on the testimonies and vivid stories of others to substantiate one‘s own beliefs, even though testimonies are inherently subjective, inaccurate, unreliable, biased, and occasionally fraudulent.

17

The Use of Language
(Category of Hindrance to Critical Thinking)

This is highly relevant to critical thinking. The choice of
- words themselves can conceal the truth, mislead, confuse, or deceive us.

18

Ambiguity

Hindrance to critical thinking - Use of Language
- a word or expression that can be understood in more than one way.

19

Assuring expressions

Hindrance to critical thinking - Use of Language
- those that disarm you from questioning the validity of an argument.

20

Meaningless comparisons

Hindrance to critical thinking - Use of Language
- include language that implies something is superior but retreats from that view.

21

Doublespeak jargon

Hindrance to critical thinking - Use of Language
- use of technical language to make the simple seem complex, the trivial seem profound, or the insignificant seem important, all done intentionally to impress others

22

Emotive content

Hindrance to critical thinking - Use of Language
- intentional use of words to arouse feelings about a subject to bias others positively or negatively, in order to gain influence or power.

23

False implications

Hindrance to critical thinking - Use of Language
- use of language that is clear and accurate but misleading because it suggests something false.

24

Apophenia and superstition

Hindrance to critical thinking - Faulty Logic or Perception
- the erroneous perception of the connections between unrelated events.

25

Argument from ignorance

Hindrance to critical thinking - Faulty Logic or Perception - a logical fallacy claiming something is true because it has not been proven false.

26

False analogies

Hindrance to critical thinking - Faulty Logic or Perception
- illogical analogies to support the validity of a particular claim.

27

pragmatic fallacy

Hindrance to critical thinking - Faulty Logic or Perception
- something is true because ―it works even though the cause of this something and the outcome are not demonstrated.

28

slippery slope fallacy

Hindrance to critical thinking - Faulty Logic or Perception
- an argument that assumes an adverse chain of events will occur, but offers no proof.

29

Ad populum

Hindrance to Critical Thinking - Psychological and Sociological Pitfalls
- bandwagon fallacy, is an appeal to the popularity of the claim as a reason for accepting the claim.

30

emotional appeal

Hindrance to Critical Thinking - Psychological and Sociological Pitfalls
- making irrelevant emotional appeals to accept a claim (since emotion often influences people more effectively than logical reasoning).