Flashcards in Cephalic, Oral and Esophageal Phase of a Meal Deck (67)
What is the cephalic phase?
It is the activation of the GI tract in readiness for food as the response to the idea of food.
What are the salivary secretions controlled by?
CN VII and IX
What are the gastric and pancreatic secretions controlled by?
What is gallbladder contraction controlled by?
What is sphincter of Oddi relaxation controlled by?
What is the oral phase?
It occurs once food has reached the mouth
What is the function of chewing?
It is meant to break food down into smaller particles for digestion
What digestion enzymes are present in the mouth?
Amylase - carbohydrates
Lingual Lipase - lipids
What is the function of mucin?
It works as lubrication for chewing and swallowing
Is there absorption in the mouth?
None really outside of alcohol and some drugs
What is xerostomia?
It is a condition of dry mouth which is caused by decreased salivary secretion and so it reduces pH in the oral cavity, leading to tooth decay, esophageal erosions, difficulty swallowing.
What are secretagogues?
Anything that stimulates secretion
What is the largest oral gland?
What are the main salivary glands?
What are serous secretions?
They are made of water, electrolytes, enzymes
What are mucous secretions?
They are made of mucin glycoprotein
Which glands are serous?
Which glands are mucous?
Which glands are mixed?
What are the units of secretion?
What is the architecture of the gland?
It is made of the acinar cells and many ducts that lead to the main collecting duct
What is the initial saliva?
It is what is produced by the acinar cells
What is the final saliva?
The altered saliva after having contents from the ducts added to them
What are myoepithelial cells?
Are present in the acini and intercalated ducts. These cells contain actin and myosin fibers, which allow them to contract. When stimulated by neural input, they contract to expel saliva in the forward direction.
How do serous secretions stain?
How do mucous secretions stain?
What is the lubricative function of saliva?
Lubrication of ingested food with mucus to aid its movement through the esophagus and salivary mucus is also required for speech.
What is the protective function of saliva?
During vomiting it buffers and neutralizes the gastric acid and pepsin that comes to the mouth. It also maintains healthy oral tissue as it washes away pathogenic bacteria and contains lysozyme, which lyses bacterial cell walls.
How is saliva in comparison to the plasma?
It is hypotonic