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Flashcards in Cells (Chapter 1) Deck (54)
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1

List the features to label an animal cell

Cell surface membrane
Mitochondria
Ribosome
Cell junctions
Golgi body
Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleus, nuclear envelope and nucleolus
Centrioles
Lysosomes
Cilia and flagella (some animal cells)
Cytoskeleton

2

List the features to label an plant cell

Chloroplasts
Plasmodesmata
Cytoskeleton
Cell wall
Nucleus, nuclear envelope and nucleolus
Large permanent vacuole and tonoplast
Smooth and rough ER
Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Lysosomes
Cell surface membrane
Golgi body

3

Golgi...?

Body, complex or apparatus

4

What ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm of cells?

80s ribosomes

5

What ribosomes are found in mitochondria and chloroplasts?

70s ribosomes

6

What is special about mitochondria and chloroplasts?

They contain their own small circular DNA

7

Where are 80s ribosomes found?

In the cytoplasm and on the rough ER

8

What are ribosomes?

- They are the site of protein synthesis
- They are very small - only about 25nm in diameter
- They are made of RNA and protein

9

Where is the cell surface membrane?

In between the cell wall and the cytoplasm

10

What is the function of the cell surface membrane?

It encloses the cell contents, is partially permeable and controls exchange between the cell and its environment

11

What is is the function of the cell junctions?

It can fasten cells together allowing communication channels to form between two cell membranes (gap) or act as a barrier so that materials cannot pass between two interacting cells (tight)

12

What is the function of mitochondria?

To carry out aerobic respiration, forming ATP
Synthesis of lipids

13

Where is the Golgi body found?

In the cytoplasm, close to the smooth ER

14

What is the function of the Golgi body?

- It collects, processes and sorts molecules (esp proteins from the rough ER) ready for transport in Golgi vesicles to other parts of the cell or out of the cell (secretion)
- Golgi vesicles are also used to make lysosomes

15

Where are the cilia/flagella found?

They are anchored on the outside of the cell membrane

16

What is the function of the cilia/flagella?

Allows movement of the cell
Increases the surface area of the membrane
Cell components can move along the outside surfaces

17

What is the location of the smooth and rough ER?

Penetrates the whole cytoplasm

18

What is the function of the smooth ER?

- Makes lipids and steroids e.g. cholesterol and the reproductive hormones oestrogen and testosterone
- Site of carbohydrate metabolism

19

What is the function of the rough ER?

- It is covered in 80s ribosomes which are the site of protein synthesis
- Proteins made by the ribosomes on the rough ER enter the sacs (the ER) and move through them - the proteins are modified in some way

20

What is the function of the nucleus?

- It carries the genetic code
- Stores the cell's DNA in chromosomes
- Controls the cell's activity as it contains genes
- Makes ribosomes

21

What is the function of the lysosome?

- Contains hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes which are responsible for the breakdown of unwanted structures e.g. old organelles or even whole cells
- In WBCs, lysosomes are used to digest bacteria

22

Where are centrioles found?

In the cytoplasm next to the nucleus

23

What is the function of the centrioles?

Not 100% known but the best guess is that they are involved in mitosis and meiosis by controlling the movement of the spindle fibres

24

What do chloroplasts contain?

1) 70s ribosomes,
2) Small circular DNA
3) Fluid filled sacs called thylakoids and flat, disc-like structures called grana (which contain chlorophyll)
4) Starch grains and lipids in the stroma

25

What is the function of chloroplasts?

They carry out photosynthesis

26

Where are the plasmodesmata found?

Through the cell wall

27

What is the function of plasmodesmata?

Allows the transport of material and communication between cells

28

Where is the cell wall found?

It surrounds the cell and sits on top of the cell surface membrane

29

What is the function of the cell wall?

It is made of cellulose
Keeps the cell rigid, provides strength and supports against changes in turgor pressure

30

What is the function of the large permanent vacuole?

- Helps to regulate the osmotic properties of cells
- It fills with water so increases turgor pressure which supports the cell and its shape
- Can act as a store for water and ions

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