Flashcards in Case Study - Indonesian Boxing Day Tsunami 2004 Deck (19)
Describe the type of hazard
earthquake that developed into a tsunami as a secondary effect
Describe the location
intersection of the Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate. Eastern coast of Indian Ocean in Indonesia.
how many were killed?
over 250,000 people
cost of disaster
$15 billion - quite low compared to damages in a HIC, e.g $65 billion for Hurricane Sandy.
causes of disaster
Indo-Australian plate subducting below Eurasian Plate (Destructive) causing a 9.1 magnitude earthquake under the Indonesian earthquake.
What was the magnitude?
9.1 on the richter scale
How high were the tsunami wave peaks?
Why were so many people killed and injured?
- Poor infrastructure not designed to withstand an earthquake of 9.1 magnitude.
- No history of tsunamis meant that there was no warning and people were not educated so didn't realise a tsunami was about to occur.
How many were injured?
How many homeless?
How many settlements were wiped out?
What long term social impacts were there?
-Long term psychological impacts but little help in place
- Land disputes broke out in the following months as documents were lost in the devastation.
- Up to 150,000 people died from Cholera and Dysentery in refugee camps.
What were the economic impacts?
-Damage to homes (most were uninsured), towns and businesses
- Damage to tourist industry
- Damage to national infrastructure
- Damage to the fishing industry in Indonesia, Malaysia, India and Sri Lanka.
How was the fishing industry badly affected?
Most fishermen did not have insurance and the government wasn't wealth enough to replace their boats. As a result they lost their livelihoods and equipment - further infrastructure like ports and harbours was damaged.
How was the tourism industry badly affected?
Many tourists would not travel to Indonesia out of fear and the infrastructure was broken so it was no longer an attractive location.
What were the environmental impacts?
-Hundreds of coral reefs were damaged and coastal flooding was widespread. As a result, soils were saturated and crops failed.
- Diseases like Cholera and Dysentery spread due to the lack of clean water and sanitation in the refugee camps which killed an estimated 150,000 people.
What were the political impacts in Indonesia?
In Indonesia's Aceh province where government and rebels declared a ceasefire to allow aid to enter the region. This brought the sides closer to reconciliation and encouraged dialogue.
What were the political impacts in Sri Lanka?
Rebel held territory did not receive relief supplies and both sides accused each other of failure. As such, the tsunami aggravated the conflict.