Case Study: Holderness coast Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Case Study: Holderness coast Deck (8)
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1

Facts and figures

  •  A 61km stretch of coast running from Flamborough Head in the north to Spurn Head (a spit) in the south
  • NE of England
  • On average the coast erodes at about 2 metres a year

2

Why is it eroding so quickly?

  • Because of local geology
  • 18,000 years ago the north of England was covered in ice (last ice age)
  • As the ice melted it deposited huge amounts of glacial deposits
  • These glacial deposits actually extended the Holderness coast out into the sea
  • However, the glacial deposits (boulder clay)  are extremely vulnerable to erosion

3

Mappleton coastal management

  • In 1991 almost £2 million was spent on two rock groynes and a rock revetment to protect Mappleton and the B1242 coastal road
  • Blocks of granite were imported from Norway for the sea defences. The purpose of the two rock groynes was to trap beach material. By retaining a wide, sandy beach between the stone groynes the sea would not be able to reach the base of the cliffs at Mappleton.
  • In addition the cliff between the two groynes has been stabilized through landscaping and vegetation cover.

4

Evaluation of Mappleton

  • The coastal defences have been effective in reducing erosion between the two groynes
  • It has protected the home and the B412 road

However:

  • Increased rate of erosion at further south ( the Great Cowden)
  • No beach to protect the cliff -> Cliff failure.

5

Withernsea coastal management

  • Because Hornsea and Mappleton were protected it also became necessary to protect Withernsea further south.
  • Has a modern sea wall with rock armour in front of it (costs up to £10,000 per metre) to take the force out of large storm waves.
  • Originally, there was a straight wall protecting the town (1875) → energy scoured away the base of the wall → collapse → curved seawalls to reflect the energy

  • There are groynes (cost about £5,000 each) along the beach to trap sand and widen the beach.

6

Evaluation of Withernsea

  • Appearance of seawall affects tourism (tourists want a natural scenery)
  • Businesses no longer under threat
  • Cost-benefit analysis proved effective

7

Flamborough Head coastal management

  • Do nothing
  • Flamborough Head is made of resistant chalk headland, thus making it stronger than most of the rocks and geology along Holderness coast, therefore there isn’t as susceptible to erosion as other areas like Mappleton or Hornsea

8

Evaluation of Flamborough Head

  • Saves expenditure on defence
  • Environmentally friendly
  • Natural processes are not interfered with