Case Study: Eastern Seaboard Flashcards Preview

Physical Geography A Level > Case Study: Eastern Seaboard > Flashcards

Flashcards in Case Study: Eastern Seaboard Deck (5)
Loading flashcards...


Hard methods = ineffective
- Sea walls and other hard engineering methods only protect buildings, not the beaches (e.g: Beach in Galveston was lost in the hurricane in 1900)
- Sea walls fail in Texas, South Carolina, California due to poor maintenance and construction
- Marshfield,Massachusetts and Monmouth Beach, New Jersey = gone
- Rising sea level makes seawall not effective
- People disliked the ugly sceneries


Factors leading to a rise in sea level

- Flat topography of the coastal plains (rise of few mm/year can push the ocean a meter in land in Florida)
- North American coast is sinking relative to ocean (e.g NY = 1.5mm/year)
- Extensive coastal development


Alternative: Strategic retreat (allow erosion)

Land use management (Engineers stopped challenging nature, now work with natural process)
- The Massachusetts Wetlands Protection Act limits building on coastal land
- Ban sea walls to control erosion on coastal dunes (sea walls prevented the supply of sand to the dunes)
- North Carolina banned hard engineering methods like groyne or rock strong points since the beaches are major assets to the states
- 1986 doubled the distance from sea for large buildings


Alternative: Beach replenishment

Atlantic City, Virgina, Miami
Benefit: A compromise b/w building defenses and leave shore to erode
Draw back:
- Cost: 1980 US spent $64m on beach replenishment in Mimi
- Loss of new sand: Erosion removed 30m of sand where sand was extracted to keep the beach stabilised at 60m wide



Rising sea level and retreating coasts = continuing issue
Protective hard engineering for major coastal cities like New York (since they're economically important --> can't retreat)
Soft engineering in less developed area (Carolina Beach, North Carolina)