Cartography, Digital Mapping and GIS - Year 1 - Lectures 8 to 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cartography, Digital Mapping and GIS - Year 1 - Lectures 8 to 10 Deck (38)
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What does this define?
One of the principal concepts of behavioural geography, referring to the psychological representation of places as revealed by simple paper and pencil tests

Mental maps


What are the characteristics of mental maps?

Internalized representations of the environment – paths walked frequently more relevant and prominent (representations of the world around us from our perspective)
· Images of places at different scales
· Influenced by experience; information from a variety of sources
· Provide a basis for environmental decision-making
· Concept developed in the 1960s in the context of a psychological turn in human geography (behavioural geography)
· Environmental perception as mediation between environment and human action


What does this define?
A map that purposely distorts geographic space based on values of a theme (e.g. making the size of countries proportional to population)



What does this define?
Real-world distances are distorted to reflect some attribute, e.g. flight times between major airports

Distance cartograms


What does this define?
Scale administrative units as a function of the value of an attribute associated with the administrative unit (e.g. population)

Area cartograms


What are these the characteristics of?
· Based on a uniformly shaped symbol (typically a circle)
· Size of symbol is function of a variable (e.g. population)
· Algorithm places symbol in centre of each unit; then overlap is gradually eliminated
o Focus is on human geography of a region rather than on its physical extent
o Small areas with large populations are more apparent here than on traditional maps
o Provide no shape information for administrative units

Dorling's cartograms


What does this define?
A collection of world maps called cartograms, where territories are re-sized on each map according to the subject of interest.



What does this define?
A map used to depict the movement of phenomena between geographic locations; generally this is done using ‘flow lines’ of varying thickness

Flow map


What are these the characteristics of?
· Show linear movement between places
· Lines are used as symbols to represent flow
- Quantitative: width of flow lines are drawn proportional to the quantity of movement
- Qualitative: lines unscaled and usually of uniform thickness
· Arrows indicate directions

Flow map


What are these the characteristics of?
- Show movement of vehicles past a route point
- Varying line widths
- Usually without directional symbols

Traffic flow maps


What are these the characteristics of?
- Do not portray actual routes followed
- Illustrate social or economic interaction
- Straight lines connect points of origin and destination
- Usually without directional symbols

Desire line maps


What does this define?
An exploratory technique used to visualize proximities (similarities)

Multidimensional scaling


What does this refer to?
Refers to conceptual space within ICTs



What are the types of cyberspaces?

- Internet -> global network of computers
- Intranet -> private, corporate networks
- Virtual reality -> Visual, interactive, computer-generated environments (totally immersive or screen-based)
- Telecommunications -> phone


What does this define?
The representation of information in the form of a chart, diagram, picture, etc.

Data visualisation


What are the two ways of viewing the power of maps?

- Maps as communicative devices (Map Communication Model: MCM)
- Maps as a Social Construct


What do these describe maps as?
- Map making is very political
- Scientific, functional approach to cartography
- Separation between cartographer and user
- Presentation of stable, known information by cartographer
- Map communicates information to the user
- Cognitive abilities of map user important
- Search for optimal (best) map through methods of communication
- Key author: Arthur Robinson (1915-2004)

Maps as communicative devices
(Map Communication Model: MCM)


What do these describe maps as?
• Maps as practices and sites of power-knowledge
• Judgements of ‘best’ arise from privileged discourses which subjugate other cartographic knowledges (e.g. non-scientific, local, cartographies of resistance)
• Maps are transient rather than permanent (exploration rather than presentation of the real world)
• Cartographer-user dichotomy is conflated (user can be the cartographer, e.g. web-mapping)
• Key author: Brian Harley (1932-1991)

Maps as a Social Construct


What did Harley argue in his key article published in Cartographica in 1989?

He argues that every map is a social construct, there is no propaganda vs true.
• Challenges primacy of the map as communication
• Focuses on power relations inherent in mapping; map as a social construction and cultural text -> contrasts Robinson’s view
• ‘Crisis of representation’
• Shouldn’t clame that cartography is only scientific


What does this define?
Transforms the curved, three-dimensional surface of the earth into a flat, two-dimensional plane

Map Projections


What are the three types of map projections?

- Mercator
- Peters
- Robinson's


Describe the Mercator's projection.

Preserves shapes, distorts areas


Describe the Peter's projection.

Preserve areas, distorts shape


Describe the Robinson's projection.

A compromise - neither the area or shape are correct.


What are these the methods for?
- Areal aggregation
- Use of classification methods
- Selection of variables displayed
- Use of grey scale and colour
- Use of language (e.g. ‘labour force participation’ or ‘job losses’)

“Making Nonsense of the Census”


What are these the methods for?
- Falsification of maps
- Territorial claims
- Omissions
- Use of shading and colour
- Naming

Disinformation and Propoganda


True or False
Maps are neutral and objective

False, maps are not neutral and objective


Why do maps require a critical interpretation?

Maps require a critical interpretation as cartographers are often trying to portray an opinion or view.


What theory is this?
A theory in cartography that characterizes mapping as a process of transmitting geographic information via the map from the cartographer to the end-user

Map Communication Model


What does this define?
An idea that has been created and accepted by the people in a society

Social construct