Cartography, Digital Mapping and GIS - Year 1 - Lectures 1 to 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cartography, Digital Mapping and GIS - Year 1 - Lectures 1 to 7 Deck (115)
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1

Define cartography

Discipline dealing with the conception, production, dissemination and study of maps in all forms.

2

What is the Darwinian view of map making?

Map making improves as civilization progresses – focus on accuracy and technology

3

What is the ‘Old is beautiful’ view of map making?

Art historian perspective, valued for artistic quality

4

What is the ‘Nationalistic’ view of map making?

cartographic traditions in individual countries

5

What are other approaches to study the history of cartography?

– The use of maps as documents to communicate specific messages
– The use of maps in their wider societal context (tools of oppression, governance) -> propaganda maps
– The history of the technology required to produce and disseminate maps
– The artistic representation on the map face -> iconography

6

What was the function/characteristics of early maps?

• focus on local areas
• Make sense of the world around us
• 6200 BC wall painting in Catal Hoyuk (Anatolia, Turkey) -> first map?
• Religious beliefs shaped maps -> small scale (600 BC Babylonian map of the world -> Babylonians saw themselves at the centre of the world)

7

Define world view

A person's world view is the way they see and understand the world, especially regarding issues such as politics, philosophy, and religion. Regarding map making people's world view influences this, e.g. centring your country on the world map

8

Define indigenous cartographies

The mapping practices, past and present, produced or conceptualised by indigenous peoples and informed by the aesthetics and sign systems of the societies from which they derive. E.g. In Siberia, Chukchi and Mansi navigational cartography is inscribed on bark or painted directly on trees along a route.

9

What was the emphasis of map making on for the Greeks and Romans?

The emphasis was on practicality. The maps were used for travel and the military

10

What is the Medieval mappae mundi?

Maps about how the world was seen from a Christian view in the past.

11

What are Renaissance cartographies?

During the renaissance period, Europeans especially grew more interested in understanding their world, and the fields of geography and cartography gained new prominence. The rediscovery of the work of an Ancient Greek scholars helped both geography and cartography take huge steps forward during this period.

12

During the renaissance period what was developed that led to maps being made easier and in larger numbers?

The printing press

13

What is Mercator’s World map?

It was the first 3D map which made navigation by ship much easier.

14

Why is Mercator’s World map inaccurate?

It exaggerates the size of Europe due to its influence on trade.

15

Define colonialism

The practice of establishing territorial dominion over another country by an outside political power making it your colony. It involves the controlling country occupying it with settlers and exploiting it for resources.

16

Define imperialism

A policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonisation.

17

What are these the characteristics of?
• Observation-based, scientific approach to data collection
• First developed in 18th century France
• Field-surveying techniques, refinement of triangulation, improved mathematical methods, new methods of relief representation
• increasing use of maps by the state for political purposes (e.g. national mapping projects)

Modern maps

18

What is cadastral mapping?

A map that shows the extent, value and ownership of land.

19

What is the last step in the history of mapping?

Digital mapping

20

What is a topographic map?

A type of map characterised by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines.

21

What was the quantitative revolution?

The computerisation of geography which occurred in the 1950/60's.

22

How do the terms paradigmatic and ideographic relate to the quantitative revolution?

Ideographic is something that uses a symbol to describe it without a word or sound whereas as paradigmatic refers to using words to describe something. During the quantitative revolution there was an increase in the use of symbols over text in map making (increase in ideographic over paradigmatic)

23

What is computer-assisted mapping?

any mapping procedure done with the aid of computers

24

What are these the benefits of?
– Reducing costs of map production
– Shortening the time of map creation
– Dealing with large quantities of data
– Reproducing maps of the same quality

Computer-assisted mapping

25

What are these types of?
SYMAP, line printer, line plotter, desktop mapping, web mapping

Computer-assisted mapping

26

What is this a definition of?
Using a desktop computer to perform digital mapping functions

Desktop Mapping

27

What is this a definition of?
An impact printer which makes use of a continuous feed of paper and prints one line of text at a time.

Line Printer

28

What is this a definition of?
A printer that interprets commands from a computer to make line drawings on paper with one or more automated pens.

Line Plotter

29

What is this a definition of?
A map that integrates multiple layers of geographic data within a single web application.

Web mapping

30

Define mainframe

A large high-speed computer, especially one supporting numerous workstations or peripherals.