Flashcards in CARDIOVASCULAR AND HEMATOPOETIC DISEASES OF PIGS Deck (57)
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR DIAGNOSTICS
(young and thin animals, due to less fat and vocalization is an issue.)
-Left sided only
-3-4th intercostal space, shoulder line
-2-3rd intercostal space, young, thin animal
Relative cardiac dullness:
-becomes absolute if there are cardiac enlargement or fluid accumulation.
-Rule out pericardial end pleural effusion!
Arteries available for digital palpation
facial artery – difficult
Facial artery - difficult
CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES
Rare relative occurrence: since they are culled and never breeded most congenital diseases are eradicated
• Tricuspid dysplasia
• Atrial septal defect
• Persistent, common atrioventricular channel
ACQUIRED HEART DISEASES
• Bacterial endocarditis
• Diseases of the myocardim
• Diseases of the pericardium
• Vascular diseases
Causes of diseases of the mycocardium: viruses
- Foot-and-mouth disease: apthovirus, SVD:enterovirus
- Parvovirus in piglets
- PRSS – repro and resp virus
- Encephalomyocarditis: cardiovirus
(Diseases of the mycocardium)
Vitamin E/selenium deficiency can cause:
Acute cardiac death (+stress)
Mulberry heart disease
Causes of diseases of the mycocardium: toxic
- Se, As, Hg, laslocide, alinomycin, monensin
(ionophore AB used as growth promotors)
Causes of diseases of the mycocardium: inherited
- + stress (malignant hyperthermia
(Vitamin E and selenium deficiency)
Describe Mulberry heart disease:
Young, rapidly growing animals
Often appears as sudden death
result of an oxidative stress caused by free radicals
Prevention: generally relies on increasd levels of vitamin E via injection, water, or feed supplementation
PERICARDITIS - Etiology and diagnostics:
The question is always if there is fluid or not!
- Actinobacillus sp
- Haemophillus parasuis – glassers disease
- Mycoplasma hyorhiinis
- s.suis, streptococcus
- other septic bacteria
Common pericardial diseases of swine
- what are the clinical signs of glassers disease?
Fibrinous exudate in body cavities
BLOOD LOOSING ANEMIA - causes:
Bleeding gastric ulcer – into intestines
- loss of blood/nutritives
- strongylidosis, ascariosis, hyostrongylus rubidus, trichuris suis
HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA, who gets it, how does it transmit and how do we treat it?
Immunohaemolytic anaemia (isoerythrolysis) in newborn piglets.
Sow/boar blood group incompatibility, e.g. cross-mating of mangalica with other breeds
M. haemosuis (Eperythrozoon suis), transmitted:
insects, needles, transplacental; On the surface of erythrocytes.
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN PIGLETS,
Occurrence: in piglets of fast development.
Etiology: Sow milk + Fe-reserve of piglets from mother = 50% of total requirement
Intensive husbandry: till the 14. postnatal day: limited source of Fe
Clinical signs and sequela
1. Severe Fe deficiency:
Clinical anemia at 6-14 days of age
„porcelain piglets”, tachypnea, weakness, squash to death
2. Mild Fe deficiency:
Subclinical anemia at 1-4 weeks of age
Decreased general resistance (depressed immune system)
secondary diseases, retarded growth, poor effectivity of fattening
Diff. diag of PSS:
malignant hyperthermia: tremors, twitching face muscles, rapid breathing, skin reddened and blotched, body temp.
Back muscle necrosis: localised form, stiff muscles, paresis, elevated plasma CK
Clinical signs of methaemoglobinaemia
- Sudden onset
- Blue discoloration of mucosal membranes and skin,
- chocolate-brown blood, failure of cooagulation
hypervitaminosis is rare (intensive farming and nutrition)
- + selenium deficiency (soil low on selenium)
- feed composition: high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, copper, vitamin A or mycotoxins damage vitamin E molecule or decrease bioavailability
- + β-carotene deficiency
- reproductive disorders
o problems in cycling activity, no estrus or pregnancy
o Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy is teratogenic (blind, problems with brain tissue growth, locomotor)
o ascariasis– anthelminthics!
o Dermatitis, exudative
- mulberry heart disease – MHD:
o piglets from a few weeks to 4 months old suddenly die
o necropsy: alternating areas of necrosis and hemorrhage throughout the myocardium, fluid and fibrin in the pericardium, fluid in thorax
- hepatosis dietetica
o less common
o sudden death
o alternating areas of necrosis and hemorrhage on the liver, some lobes can be swollen, gall bladder edema
- bleeding all over the body
- pale skin, hematomas throughout the body in severe cases
- diff. diag.: rodenticids (warfarin)
HYPOGLYAEMIA IN NURSING PIGLETS (2-4 DAYS)
Piglet is born with minimal liver glycogen (+ no brown fat tissue) – low energy, not good at regulating their temperature.
Leads to heat loss and energy reserves deplete quickly.
Causes: low maternal milk production or inability to suckle.
Clinical signs: ataxia, recumbency, anorexia, low body temperature, seizures, opisthotonus, coma
Treatment: avoid chilling (infra light) warm mattresses
glucose solution per os/artificial feeding with glucose
PORCINE STRESS SYNDROME (PSS)
-Selenium- and vitamin E deficiency might facilitate the process
In weaners, fattening pigs and sows:
-Overreaction to stress, abnormal amount of muscle contractions in response to normal impulses.
- sudden death (peracute)
- malignant hyperthermia
- back muscle necrosis - localized
- PSE (pale soft exudative) meat
PORCINE STRESS SYNDROME (PSS) Cause, Clinical signs
Sudden new stimulus (sunlight), moving, transportation can be triggers.
PORCINE STRESS SYNDROME (PSS) treatment and prevention
-Cooling with cold water, 50-100 ml Ca gluconate im. can be tried
Screening for susceptible animals:
halothane test, genetic screening
-Genetics: herd free from the gene
-homozygous dominant animals to be bred with heterozygous ones to achieve high meat quality in fattening pigs
- stress free environment
- Stresnil inj. (azaperon) before regrouping or transport
- Selenium and vitamin E supplementation
Spayleg, causes, Consequences, treatment, prevention
Unclear: environmental (slippery floors, cold, wet environment),
stress at farrowing
low birth weight
genetics (Landrace), F2 toxin, ...
Hypoplasia of the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris.
The newborn piglet’s hind limbs are splayed, the piglet cannot stand.
More frequent in males.
Unability to suckle, trampling – increased mortality
bind the hind legs together for 48 to 72 hours
But if all for legs are affected - euthanasia
dry, warm, non-slippery surfaces, proper nutrition for pregnant sows, avoid stress at farrowing
RICKETS - etiology, pathogenesis
-Deficiency of calcium (tetany!), phosphorus
- Deficiency of vitamin D (intensive– lack of sunlight), or imbalance of their concentrations (fast growth)
-Disturbance of mineralisation of long bones (PTH↑)
-Long bones widen and thicken, growth plates are irregular
-Osteoclast activity increase, osteoblast will decrease
Clinical signs of rickets
- stunted growth
- lameness – ends of long bones thicken, these bones bend unnaturally (bent joints)
Necroscopic findings of rickets
- numerous healing fractures
- ribs bend before breaking
- growth plates thicken, their surfaces are irregular– saw the bone longitudinally to see