Flashcards in cardiovascular Deck (21)
What is atherosclerosis?
Disease of the inside of the lumen (intima)
Results in formation of lesions or plaques
It's is linked to the increased lipid concentration in blood
Can lead to hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol
What is endogenous cholesterol?
Synthesised in the LIVER,
Esterified and extruded
What us exogenous cholesterol?
Comes from food
What are the 3 types of lipid lowering drugs?
What do statins do?
Prevent formation of cholesterol
What do fibrates do?
Activate transcription factor which controls lipid metabolism
Reduces concentration of triglycerides
What does niacin do?
Binds to GPCRs
Reduces release of fatty acids
Lowers LDL concentration in blood.
What are bile acid binding resins?
Increases plasma cholesterol concentration
What does ezetimibe do?
Inhibits cholesterol absorption in the small intestine
Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
Can cause GI BLEEDING and brain heammorage
Cox1 inhibitor (cox1 activated in platelet formation)
Decreases amount of cAMP
Can cause heammorage
ADP receptor antagonist (ADP is released with platelets - vasoconstriction)
Activates phosphodiesteRase inhibitors (phosphodiesteRase brakes down cAMP)
IncreAses cAMP levels (opposite effect to clopidognel)
Causes vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation and aggregation
What do anticoagulants do?
Interact with factor Xa
Direct thrombin inhibitors
What are heparins?
Heterogenous family of mucopolysaccharides
Binds to antithrombins and enhances its actions (stopping thrombin formation)
Can inhibit thrombin and factor Xa
Thrombin contributes to blood clots
What does rivaroxaban do?
Factor Xa inhibitor (Xa aids thrombin formation)
Long lasting action
No effect on thrombin or platelets
Can prevent pulmonary embolisms
What does warfarin do?
Used for prevention and treatment of stroke and myocardial infarction
Binds to albumin in plasma
Competes with vitamin K
What is cardiac hypertrophy?
Increase in mass of heart size becomes dilated and muscle thickens
What is systolic failure?
Heart does not contract normally
What is diastolic failure?
Heart chambers unable to fill properly and relax normally
Treatments of heart failure drugs:
ACE inhibitors: captopril, enalopril, lisinopril
Beta blockers; carvedilol, bisoprolol, metoprolol