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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (392)
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151

What two ions cause vasodilation in skeletal muscle?

potassium and hydrogen ions

152

What chamber does pulmonary capillary wedge pressure measure?

left atria

153

What is the Starling Equation?

(Pc-Pi) - (πc-πi)

154

What does Pc represent?

capillary hydrostatic pressure

155

What does Pi represent?

capillary oncotic pressure

156

What does πc represent?

capillary oncotic

157

What does πi represent?

interstitial osmotic

158

What does TAPVR stand for?

total anamolous pulmonary venous return

159

What is the defect in TAPVR? What other two defects are often seen during TAPVR?

pulmonary veins drain into right heart

ASD and PDA

160

What are the five causes of a right to left shunt?

Truncus Arteriosus

Transposition

Tricuspid atresia

tetralogy of fallot

TAPVR

161

What defect often accompanies a Persistent Truncus Arteriosus?

VSD

162

What causes Transposition of the Great Vessels?

Failure of aortico-pulmonary septum to spiral

163

What three conditions does Eisenmenger Syndrome produce?

cyanosis

clubbing

Polycythemia

164

A non-mitral bicuspid valve is associated with what disease?

Aortic stenosis

165

Where does an infantile coarctation of the aorta connect?

proximal to PDA

166

Where does an adult coarctation of the aorta connect?

distal to ligamentum arteriosum

167

What is infantile coarctation of the aorta associated with ?

Turner syndrome

168

What are three findings of adult coarctation of the aorta?

notching of ribs

strong UE pulses

weak LE pulses

169

What conditions of the heart is 22q11 associated with?

truncus arteriosus

tetralogy of fallot

170

What three heart conditions are associated with Down Syndrome?

ASD

VSD

atrial septal defect

171

What two heart conditions are associated with Turner Syndrome?

coarctation of aorta

bicuspid aortic valve

172

What four heart conditions are associated with Marfan Syndrome?

MVP

thoracic aorta aneurysm/dissection

aortic regurgitation

173

Infant of diabetic mother is associated with what heat issue?

Transposition of Great Arteries

174

What is the main cause of HTN in young patients?

fibromuscular dysplasia

175

What specific cell type are Xanthomas made of?

Lipid Laden Histiocytes

176

What is the most common tendon for a xanthoma to lodge?

achilles

177

What part of the vessel does Monckeberg Arteriosclerosis effect? What process? Which vessels?

media

calcification

radial and ulnar

178

What are the two types of arteriolosclerosis?

hyaline and hyperplastic

179

What are the two causes of hyaline arteriolosclerosis?

chronic benign HTN and diabetes

180

What causes hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis? What appearance takes place?

severe HTN

onion skinning