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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (392)
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91

Delayed closure of what valve occurs during splitting of S2 sounds?

pulmonic

92

What causes a wide splitting of S2?

anything that delays RV emptying

93

What causes a paradoxical splitting? What is the order of valve closing?

anything that delays LV emptying

pulmonic closes before aortic in this situation

94

Inspiration would increase the intensity of sounds from what side of the heart?

right side

95

What does the hand grip manuever accomplish?

increases vascular resistance

96

Does the hand grip manuever increase or decrease the intensity of left-sided heart pathologies?

increase

97

Would the hand grip manuever make a MVP occur earlier or later?

later

98

What does standing do to venous return?

decrease it

99

What does the valsalva manuever do to venous return?

decrease it

100

What does standing/valsalva manuever do to most murmurs?

weaken their intensity

101

What murmur can standing/valsalva manuever increase the intensity of?

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

102

What does rapid squatting do to preload?

increase

103

What does rapid squatting do to venous return?

increase

104

What murmur can rapid squatting increase the intensity of?

aortic stenosis

105

Would rapid squatting increase or decrease the intensity of an MVP?

increase

106

What are the three presentations of aortic stenosis upon exertion?

syncope

Angina

Dyspnea

107

Woud mitral/tricuspid regurgitation be a systolic or diastolic murmur?

systolic murmur

108

Where does an aortic stenosis murmur radiate?

carotids

109

Where is a VSD murmur the loudest?

at the tricuspid valve

110

Would an MVP occur during diastole or systole? Early or late?

systole

late

111

Name three conditions that may cause an MVP?

myxomatous degeneration

rheumatic fever

papillary muscle rupture

112

Would an aortic regurgitation murmur be heard in diastole or systole? Early or late?

diastole

early

113

What are two presentations of aortic regurgitation that could be seen on physical exam?

head bobbing

bounding pulses

114

What murmur produces an opening snap?

mitral stenosis

115

What is the most common cause of mitral stenosis?

chronic rheumatic fever

116

What is the most common cause of a PDA?

congenital rubella

117

Where is a PDA best heard?

left infraclavicular area

118

What voltage is the action potential for a cardiac myocyte?

-85 mV

119

What voltage is the action potential for a cardiac nodal cell?

-40 mV

120

Why dont nodal cells have a Phase 0 similar to myocytes? Results in?

high RMP permanently inactivates fast sodium channels

slower conduction times