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Flashcards in Cardiology-AACN Deck (42)
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1

volume of blood ejected by the heart per minute

cardiac output

2

what is the normal CO

4-8L/min

3

volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole

stroke volume

4

Preload or ___ ___ volume

end diastolic

5

How do you assess preload

RV: CVP/ RA pressure
normal: 2-6mmHg
LV: PAWP/ LA pressure
normal 6-12 mmHG

6

How to reduce preload

diuretics/ vasodilators

7

How to increase preload

volume/ vasoconstriction of venous blood and increases return to RIGHT heart

8

the pressure the ventricle must generate to open the semilunar valve and eject its contents

afterload

9

Reflects the overall resistance or impedance to systolic ejection into the entire systemic circulation

SVR or LV afterload

10

the greatest resistance to flow lies in the:

small arteries and arterioles

11

Formula for SVR

80 x (MAP-RAP)/CO

12

Reduction of afterload meds

Vasodilators:
Nitro, Nicardapene, Hydralazine, Lordalil, Ca Channel blockers,
sodium nitroprusside, Ace inhibitors

13

Increase afterload med

Pressors: Epi, Phenylephrine, Levo, Dopamine, Vasopressin

14

Normal SVR

800-1200 dynes/sec/cm-5

15

Causes of increased SVR

volume infusions, peripheral vasoconstriction, Low CO states, hypothermia, increased blood viscosity, hypovolemia, vasopressors, LV failure, alpha-adrenergic agents

16

Causes of decreased SVR

diuretics, peripheral vasodilation, vasodilators, hyperdynamic phase of sepsis

17

Pulmonare vascular resistance indicative of

RV afterload

18

resistance or impedance to right ventricular ejection into the pulmonary vasculature

Pulmonary vascular resistance

19

formular for PVR

80 x (MPAP-PAOP)/ CO

20

Normal PVR

<250 dynes/se/cm-5

21

Causes of increased PVR

hypoxia, pulmonary edema, ARDS, pulmonary emboli, congenital heart defect, pulmonary hypertension , sepsis, valvular heart disease

22

causes of decreased PVR

vasodilator therapy- prostaglandins/ correction of hypoxia

23

ability of the heart to modulate its contractile performance independant of preload and afterload

contractility

24

Normal range of pulmonary artery pressure

15-25/0-8 mmHg

25

Pulmonary artery pressure high readings reasons:

primary pulmonary hypertension, valvular heart disease

26

pulmonary
Pulmonary artery pressure low readings reasons:

hypovolemia, vasodilator therapy

27

average pressure in the circuit during systole and diastole

mean arterial pressure

28

Normal MAP

70-105

29

average pressure in the pulmonary circuit during systole and diastole

mean pulmonary artery pressure

30

normal mean pulmonary artery pressure

10-20mmHg