Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (176)
What side effect might make a patient stop taking an ACEI?
Define orthostatic hypotension
A drop in systolic BP of >20mmHg when standing up
You feel a pulse that seems to be vibrating. What term do you use to describe it?
What are three things in your differential if you have a paradoxical pulse?
Cardiac tamponade, pericarditis, and obstructive lung disease
On palpation, what size is normal for the aorta?
Less than 3 cm
A fixed or consistent split S2 should make you think of what diagnosis?
Atrial Septal Defect
A pathologthic S3 is most commonly associated with what diagnossis?
If you hear a midsystolic click you should immediately be thinking about what diagnosis?
Mitral Valve Prolapse
An opening snap on auscultation of the heart should make you think of what diagnosis?
A continuous murmur most likely involves what area of the heart?
It is most likely a septal defect
You hear a continuous machine like murmur. What is the most likely diagnosis?
List three medications which may be used for a pharmacological stress test.
Adenosine, dobutamine, dipyridamole, and persantine.
What is the gold standard for diagnosing coronary artery disease?
Define stage 1 hypertension according to JNC 7
Systolic pressure of 140-159 and diastolic of 90-99
What is the treatment goal BP for a diabetic with hypertension?
What is the most common cause of secondary hypertension?
Chronic Kidney Disease
No matter what medications you use, you are having trouble keeping a patient's blood pressure under control You also notice hyperpigmented skin and truncal obesity. What is the most likely diagnosis?
List three signs or symptoms which will likely be included in a description of a patient with a pheochromocytoma?
Thin, diaphoretic, tachycardic, agitated, and hypertensive
You have a patient with the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. While waiting for surgery should you use an alpha or a beta blocker?
Alpha blocker (you should never use a pure beta blocker)
A young boy comes into your office. He has elevated blood pressure when taken in his arm, but no palpable femoral pulse. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Coarctation of the aorta
According to the CDC, what is the range for a normal BMI?
18.5 - 24.9
What is the first line medical treatment for stage 1 hypertension?
A Thiazide Diuretic
After a thiazide diuretic, what medication should you start in a hypertensive patient who also has diabetes?
An ACE-Inhibitor or an ARB
Following a myocardial infarction, what medication should you be using to treat hypertension?
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea should make you think of what diagnosis?
What is the most common cause of CHF?
Coronary artery disease
What ejection fraction is typical for a patient with CHF?
35% - 40%
What is the most likely diagnosis for a young man who experiences sudden death while playing sports?
Batwing vessels or Kerley B lines on a chest x-ray should make you think of what diagnosis?