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Flashcards in Cardiac Simulation Deck (36)
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1

What occurs when the pressure in the left ventricle exceeds that of the aorta?

Aortic valve opens

2

What happens when the pressure in the left ventricle exceeds the pressure in the left atria?

Mitral valve closes

3

What occurs when the pressure in the aorta exceeds that of the left ventricle?

Aortic valve closes

4

What happens when the pressure in the left atria exceeds that of the left ventricle?

Mitral valve opens

5

Describe the Atrial Systole of the Cardiac Cycle.

Filling of the ventricles until the atrioventricular valves close as the pressure in the ventricles exceeds that in the atria.

6

Describe the Isovolumic Contraction of the Cardiac Cycle.

Left ventricular pressure increases until the aortic valve opens.

7

Describe the Ejection of the Cardiac Cycle.

Ventricular muscles shorten and contract, ejecting blood from the heart in two phases: rapid and reduced.

8

Describe the Isovolumic Relaxation of the Cardiac Cycle.

The left ventricular pressure decreases below the the aortic pressure and so the aortic valve closes.

9

Describe the Ventricular Filling of the Cardiac Cycle.

The left ventricle falls below atrial pressure and so the mitral valve opens and the atria can begin to fill the ventricles in two stages: rapid and reduced.

10

Why is there Reduced Ejection?

Reduced ejection occurs because of:
1) Increased after load as it has increased due to the ventricles pumping blood out of the aorta
2) Cardiac muscle has already shortened a lot and so it has already shortened sarcomeres.

11

Why is there Reduced Filling?

The tension increases as the ventricles are filled and so when they are close to being full they resist filling more and so it fills slower.

12

What is the normal pressure of the right atria?

2 mmHg

13

What is the normal pressure of the left atria?

6 mmHg

14

What is the normal pressure of the right ventricle?

2 mmHg

15

What is the normal pressure of the left ventricle?

6 mmHg

16

What is the diastolic pressure of the left ventricle?

6 mmHg

17

What is the systolic pressure of the left ventricle?

120 mmHg

18

What is the normal aortic pressure?

80 mmHg

19

What is the diastolic pressure of the right ventricle?

2 mmHg

20

What is the systolic pressure of the right ventricle?

25 mmHg

21

What is the a-wave in the venous pulse caused by?

Atrial contraction

22

What is the c-wave in the venous pulse caused by?

Ventricular contraction

23

What is the v-wave in the venous pulse caused by?

Filling and emptying of the atria

24

What is the cause of the 1st heart sound (S1)?

Closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves

25

What is the cause of the 2nd heart sound (S2)?

Closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves

26

What is the cause of the 3rd heart sound (S3)?

Occurs at the start of diastole and is caused by mitral regurgitation

27

What is the cause of the 4th heart sound (S4)?

Occurs right before systole and right after atrial contraction and is caused by a forceful contraction to overcome a hypertrophic ventricle

28

What is pulmonary wedge pressure?

It is the pressure measured by using a pulmonary catheter with a balloon wedged into a small pulmonary arterial branch.

It measures the pressure in the left atria and increases in pressure may be due to mitral stenosis.

29

What are the causes of systolic murmurs?

1) Stenosis of the aortic or pulmonary valves
2) Incompetence of the mitral and tricuspid valves

30

What are the causes of diastolic murmurs?

1) Stenosis of the mitral and tricuspid valves
2) Incompetence of the aortic and pulmonary vales

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