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Flashcards in Cardiac, Neuro, and Respiration for physiology Deck (115)
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1

What is the normal heart rhythm and what is it controlled by?

sinus rhythm and by the SA node

2

What's arrhythmia?

when the heart rate is too fast or too slow

3

What is the contractility of the myocardium determined by?

calcium ions with actin and myosin

4

What greatly impacts the contractilty of the myocardium?

the sympathetic NS

5

What is heart rate determined by?

the automatic system and the SA node

6

How is heart rate determined?

from the balance between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic ns

7

Which makes the heart rate faster?

sympathetic ns

8

Which makes the heart rate slower?

parasympathetic ns

9

What's an electrocardiogram?

graphic recording of electrical activity of the heart showing the directions impulses are traveling

10

In an ECG what does the P, QRS, and T mean?

atrial depolarization, ventricular depolarization, ventricular repolarization

11

What is heart rate?

frequency of cardiac cycle bpm

12

Do smaller or larger animals have higher rates and why?

smaller due to large surface area per unit of body mass

13

What is a cardiac auscultation?

listening to the heart

14

What does Lub do?

closes the AV valves

15

What does Dub do?

closes the semilunar valves

16

What is cardiac muscle fiber made up of?

striated, involuntary, branched with a single central nuclei and intercalculated discs

17

How do impulses travel in cardiac muscle fiber?

from cell to cell in intercalculated discs

18

Where is the SA node and what originates there?

the right atrium and impulses originate there

19

What is peripheral resistance?

blood flow that is limited by friction

20

How can blood flow through peripheral resistance?

blood pressure must be greater

21

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is?

pulse pressure

22

What is blood pressure?

the force exerted by the blood against inner walls of blood vessels

23

Maintenance of normal blood pressure prevents what?

edema

24

What is the maximum pressure achieved during ventricular contraction?

systolic blood pressure

25

What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?

maintenance of normal blood pressure with the arteries, maintenance of blood flow to the tissues, maintenance of normal blood pressure within the capillaries and veins

26

What is the mode of travel of an impulse along a myelinated nerve?

saltatory conduction

27

Do impulses travel faster in myelinated fibers or nonmyelinated fibers?

myelinated fibers

28

In myelinated axons depolarization can only occur at?

nodes of ranvier

29

What are meninges?

connective tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord

30

What is cerebrospinal fluid?

fluid between meninges and the brain and the spinal cord that cushions it