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Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (94)
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61

What effectively increases blood glucose levels?

Glucagon

62

What is released from the pancreas when you have a high blood sugar?

Insulin

63

What is released from the pancreas when you have a low blood sugar?

Glucagon

64

What is released from adrenal glands when you go into fight-or-flight mode?

Epinephrine

65

What is epinephrine also known as?

Adrenaline

66

What is a term used when blood sugar levels are below 70 mg/dL for extended periods?

Hypoglycemia

67

What is a term used when blood sugar levels are above 125 mg/dL for extended periods?

Hyperglycemia

68

What are two ways that we can determine how food affects blood sugar?

Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load (GL)

69

What is the ratio of blood glucose response to a given food compared to pure glucose?

Glycemic Index

70

What is the formula to find the Glycemic Load?

(GI x (carb content - fiber content)) / 100

71

Is the glycemic index or load a better indicator of the effect of blood sugar?

The glycemic load is a better indicator

72

Fill in the Blank: High/Low

____ GI and ____ GL foods have a lower impact on blood sugar

1. High
2. Low

73

Fill in the Blank: High/Low

____ GI and ____ GL foods have a higher impact on blood sugar

1. Low
2. High

74

What is the range for low, intermediate, and high GI foods?

Low - <= 55
Intermediate - 56 - 69
High - >= 70

75

What is the range for low, intermediate, and high GL foods?

Low - <= 10
Intermediate - 11 - 19
High - >= 20

76

What do cells use first as an energy source?

Glucose

77

What is the order of what cells will use as an energy source?

Sugar (Glucose), fat, protein

78

Why do cells use glucose as their first source of energy?

High blood sugar is dangerous

79

What does using glucose as a first source of energy prevent?

Ketosis

80

What is a metabolic state in which fat provides most of the fuel for the body?

Ketosis

81

What are 2 ways that carbs can be stored in the body?

Glycogen and fat

82

Does glycogen, fat, both, or neither have a limited capacity?

Glycogen

83

Does glycogen, fat, both, or neither have an unlimited capacity?

Fat

84

Where does glycogen store carbs?

In the liver and skeletal muscle

85

Where does fat store carbs?

In the liver and adipose tissue

86

What are two reasons fructose has been said to be a toxin?

1. It can only be metabolized by the liver
2. It can be addictive

87

Is fructose a toxin, why?

No because there are no good or bad nutrients, only foods that we are and aren't adapted to eating

88

What is the recommended daily allowance of carbs for adults?

130g/day

89

What is the average U.S intake of carbs per day?

180-330 g/day

90

What foods should we be getting our carbs from?

Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains