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Flashcards in Cancer Drugs Deck (51)
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1

carboplatin

fxn, mechanism, AEs

anti-cancer agent(testicular, bladder, ovary, lung)
cross-links DNA
AE: heme(BMS)>>>>renal/neuro

2

cisplatin

fxn, mechanism, AEs

anti-cancer platinum dertivative

cross-links DNA

AE: renal>neuro/oto>heme
- attenuate renal toxicity via hydration

3

dacarbazine(DTIC)

fxn, mechanism, AE

anti-cancer agent
common alkylator/DNA-crosslink
AE: VERY emetogenic

common alkylating tox as well: BMS, GI, alopecia, leukopenia/thrombocytopenia, NV, teratogen, carcinogen,sterilizing

4

cyclophosphamide 

fxn, mechanism, metabolism, clinical use, AE

fxn: anti-cancer agent

mechanism: cross-links DNA via alkylation at N7 guanine

metabolism: needs hepatic metabolism --> metabolites toxic to bladder
- MESNA used to protect bladder; sops up metabolites

clinical use: regimens for non-hodgkins lymphomas (CHOP, CVP)

AE: bladder toxicity, SIADH

5

melphalan

mechanism, AE

alkylating agent; crosslinks DNA via; PO

AEs: common alkylating toxicity;

6

general toxicity of alkylating agents

BM supression

mucositis

alopecia

NV

teratogen

carcinogenic

sterilizing

7

mechlorethamine

alkylator, dna-crosslink

parent drug of alkylators

8

oxaliplatin

platinum derivative
cross-links DNA

AE: neuro>>heme>>>>>renal

9

procarbazine

mech, use, AE

alkylating agent --> DNA-crosslink

CNS penetration

clinical use: hodgkins(curative); glioma(palliative)
AE: somnolence, altered mood

10

temozolomide

mech, AE

common alkylator - DNA cross-link
PO
CNS penetration

general AEs for alkylators

11

busulfan

mech, AE

alkylating agent -- cross-links DNA

AE: acute AND delayed myelosuppression, pulm fibrosis, hyperpigmentation

12

name the nitrosoureas

clinical use

AE

carmustine, lomustine (semustine, streptozocin -- First Aid)

alkylating agents used for brain tumors

AE: CNS toxicity; convulstions, dizziness, ataxia

13

ifosfamide

mech, metabolism, AE

alkylating agent -- cross-links DNA at guanine N7

requires activation in liver -- creates toxic metabolites

AE: encephalopathy

14

bleomycin

mechanism, excretion, AE

anti-tumor antibiotic
binds metals and DNA -- creates free radicals

tissues break belomycin down via specific hydrolase not present in lungs/skin
renal clearance 

AE: pulmonary/skin toxicity, raynaud's

15

actinomycin D

mech, use, AE

anti-tumor antibiotic
intercalates into DNA helix stopping RNA/protein synthesis

used in curative pediatric neoplasm regimens

AE - myelosuppression, NV, mucositis, diarrhea, vesicant, radiation recall

16

daunorubicin

anthracycline
topo II inhibitor

AE: myelosuppression, vesicant, mucositis, GI(NVD), cardiac toxicity, radiation recall

17

doxorubicin

mech, AE

anthracycline
topo II inhibitor

AE: myelosuppression, mucositis/GI(NVD), cardiac toxicity, radiation recall(bad), vesicant(dont spill on yourself)
- more mucositis on a dose-dose basis than daunorubucin

18

etoposide

mech, use, AE

topo II inhibitor

solid tumors: testicular/sslung cancer; leukemias and lymphomas

AE: neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, alopecia, NV

19

how do anthracyclines cause cardiac toxicity?

free radical generation

anthracyclines: doxorubicin, daunorubicin

20

methotrexate

mech, AE

antifolate: inhibits DHF-reductase
blocks DNA/RNA precursor formation

AE: myelosuppression, mucositis, renotoxic, hepatic(chronic use)

21

leucovorin uses

pair w/MTX: can use lethal doses of MTX since leucovorin helps to 'load' tumor cells rather than host cells

pair w/5-FU: enhances activity/complex formation

22

which phase of the cell cycle are anti-metabolites active?

S-phase

23

Azacytidine/deazacytidine

anti-metabolites
cytosine analogs

AE: cerebellar, eye, handfoot, myelosuppressive

hypomethylation activity @ low dose, useful for myelodysplastic syndrome

24

cytarabine

anti-metabolite
pyrimidine analog

AE: myelosuppression, nausea, rash, mucositis, eye, CNS toxicity

25

5-fluorouracil(5-FU)

anti-metabolite
inhibits thymidine synthesis- binds thymidilate synthase to folate, inactivating it
metabolized in tissue by DHPD

AE: myelosuppression, mucositis, CNS at high doses, coronary spasm(rare)

BMS, Brain, MUCOSITIS, CSpasm

26

gemcitabine

antimetabolite
pyrimidine analog

AE: hand/foot syndrome, myelosuppression

27

name the antimetabolite agents that are purine base analogs

thioguanine
mercaptopurine

28

name the antimetabolite agents that are purine nucleoside analogs

fludarabine
cladribine
pentostatin

29

asparaginase

mech, AE

foreign protein that clears asparagine in circulation
- decreased protein synthesis in susceptible cells

AE: hypersensitivity, hyperglycemia, pancreatitis, altered clotting

30

hydroxyurea

mechanism, use

inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase via chelation of non-heme Fe 
prevents ribonucleotides from convertign to nucleotides

Used for:
SS Anemia: try to induce HbF
Hyperleukocytosis in acute leukemia, myeloproliferative disorder: reduce WBC count