Breeding Behavior, Pregnancy, Maternal Recognition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Breeding Behavior, Pregnancy, Maternal Recognition Deck (55)
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1

Process of erection

- arterial blood fills sinusoids
- venous outflow is restricted via ischiocavernosis contraction
- pressure builds in corpus cavernosum
- retractor penis muscle relaxes
- erection and protrusion occur
- nitric oxide initiates cascade = erection

2

Erection is under ________ control

Parasympathetic

3

Ejaculation

Propulsive discharge of semen from the penis
- stimulation of glans penis

4

Ejaculation is under _____ control

Sympathetic

5

Contraction of what muscles leads to ejaculation?

- urethralis
- bulbospongiosus
- ischiocavernosus

6

What causes retrograde ejaculation?

Where sperm goes into the bladder
- could be an issue with the nervous system
- uncoordination among the muscles

7

Ram mating

- duration of copulation: 1-2 sec
- volume of ejaculate: .8-1 ml
- semen deposition: external cervix
- # of ejaculations: 10
- max # to exhaustion: 30-40

8

Bull mating

- duration of copulation: 1-3 sec
- volume of ejaculate: 3-5 ml
- semen deposition: fornix vagina
- # of ejaculations: 20
- max #: 60-80

9

Stallion mating

- duration of copulation: 20-6 sec
- volume of ejaculate: 75-120 ml
- semen deposition: external cervical os, enters uterus at high pressure
- # of ejaculations: 3
- max #: 20

10

Boar mating

- duration of copulation: 5-20 min
- volume: 200-250 ml
- semen deposition: cervix/uterus
- # of ejaculations: 3
- max #: 8

11

Cranial vagina

- bull
- ram
- buck
- dog
- tom

12

Intra cervical

- boar

13

Intra uterine

- stallion
- alpaca

14

Artificial insemination

- intra uterine deposition

15

What are the 3 stages of sperm transport?

- short, rapid transport (2-10 min)
- colonization of reserviors (cervix and UTJ)
- slow, prolonged release of sperm cells

16

Fertilization occurs when

A minimum number of sperm cells reach the site of fertilization

17

Can one sperm make it to the ovary on its own?

No

18

Influence of estrogen causes the female tract to have

Elevated tone and motility
- prostaglandins in semen have same effect

19

Rapid phase

Sperm reach oviduct in a few minutes

20

Sustained phase

Sperm reside at ostium and slowly enter oviduct
- sperm reservoir

21

Colonization of reservoirs

Huge numbers of sperm are trapped in folds of the cervix

22

What directs sperm toward the cervical crypts?

Cervical mucus
- under influence of estrogen

23

Reservoir is located at the uterine-tubular junction for species that ejaculate into _______

Uterine horns

24

Fate of sperm cells

Almost all sperm cells are lost from the tract shortly after breeding
- 60% are lost after AI
- 0.007% of sperm cells reach site of fertilization

25

_______ remove many sperm cells after breeding

Neutrophils

26

Capacitation

Final maturation process which allows sperm to fertilize the ovum
- occurs in female repro tract (specific site varies)
- physiological and biochemical
- is reversible

27

Sperm must undergo changes that are required, prior to

Penetration of the ovum
- phospholipid bilayer is altered, permitting acrosome reaction to occur

28

Seminal plasma

Coats sperm with proteins that are stripped away when in the female tract
- sperm is coated prior to ejaculation
- allows sperm to bind to the zona

29

Capacitation prevents

Premature acrosome activation until sperm are at the site of fertilization

30

What products can induce capacitation?

Heparin