Breast Cancer Flashcards Preview

Nursing 5: Test 1 Cancer > Breast Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Breast Cancer Deck (36)
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Ectoderm

1. Exposed layer to the environment
-Skin, GI, lungs, vagin, prostate, bladder, breast, ovary

1

Mesoderm

1. Filler in the middle
-Bone, muscle, fat, lymph, cartilage, bone marrow

2

Endoderm

1. Glands

3

Benign Tumors
-Characteristics

1. Slow growing w/ slow cell division
2. Histologically mature cells that stick together
3. Function as normal cells and produce hormones
4. Can be removed and don't grown back
5. Generally don't progress to malignancy

4

Benign Brest Problems

1. Fibrocystic Changes
2. Fibroademona

5

Benign Brest Problems
-Fibrocystic Changes

1. No increase cancer risk
2. Most common in 35-50
3. Hyperplasia of epithelial lining of ducts
4. Accompanied by cyclic pain and tenderness
5. Subside w/ menopause

6

Benign Brest Problems
-Fibroademona (Benign breast lumps) COMMON

1. Small, painless, round mobile well defined masses
2. Most common in young women 15-25 (dealing with IDENTITY)
-Address changes in body image
3. Rarely associated w/ cancer

7

Breast Cancer
-Statistics

1. Most common cancer & most common malignancy in American women
2. 2nd leading cause of cancer deaths

8

Breast Cancer
-Risk factors

1. Age over 40 and women
2. 1st degree relative w/ breast cancer
3. Hormone use greater than 5 years
4. Early menarche and late menopause
5. 1st pregnancy after age 30

9

Breast Cancer
-Epithelium of Lobules Patho

1. Lobular cancer in situ has a higher risk of invasive breast cancer

10

Breast Cancer
-Epithelial lining of Ducts Patho

1. Ductal carcinoma in situ will progress to invasive cancer if untreated

11

Breast Cancer
-Inflammatory Breast Cancer Patho

1. Generalized, fast-growing cancer

12

Breast Cancer
-Prophylactic Mastectomy

1. Reduction of breast cancer risk by 90%

13

Breast Cancer
-Prophylactic Oophorectomy

1. Should be considered in women who are no longer wanting children and who have the BRCA genes
2. Reduces ovarian cancer by 50% and breast cancer by 90%

14

Breast Cancer
-Positive axillary nodes

1. 50 to 75% chance of recurrence of cancer

15

Breast Cancer
-Positive Estrogen Receptors?

1. Estrogen receptor positive most often metastasizes to the bone

16

Breast Cancer
-Negative Estrogen Receptor

1. Estrogen receptor negative breast cancer generally metastasizes to:
-Soft Tissue... Brain, liver, lungs

17

Breast Cancer
-HER2

1. If result is positive, this gene may be responsible for the rapidly cancerous growing cells
2. Additional chemotherapy may be needed postoperatively

18

Age R/t Risk of Breast Cancer

1. 1/2044 @ 20
2. 1/249 @ 30
3. 1/67 @ 40
4. 1/36 @ 50
5. 1/29 @ 60

19

Breast Cancer
-Risk Factors Ductal CA

1. Combination of estrogen and progesterone increase risk
2. New evidence shows Progesterone may be bigger risk

20

Breast Cancer
-Manifestations

1. Breast mass or thickening (non-moveable, non-tender)
2. Unusual lump in the underarm (upper-outer quadrant)
3. Persistent skin rash near nipple
4. Flaking or eruption near nipple
5. Dimpling, pulling, or retraction in breast area
6. Nipple discharge
7. Change in nipple position
8. Burning, stinging, or pricking sensation

21

Breast Cancer
-Self Breast Exam

1. Pg 109

22

Breast Cancer
-Drugs that inhibit Cancer

1. Celebrex & Low Dose Aspirin (COX-2 Inhibitors)
-Encourage the breast and colon cancer cells to die
2. Drugs ending w/ "-nibs"
-Inhibit the enzymes required for cancer cells to grow

23

Breast Cancer
-Radical Mastectomy

1. Removal of the entire affected breast, the underlying chest muscles, and the lymph nodes under the arms

24

Breast Cancer
-Simple Mastectomy

1. Removal of the complete breast only

25

Breast Cancer
-Drugs

1. Pt 866 ATI Book

26

Breast Cancer
-Cachexia Etiology

1. Physical wasting from weight loss and loss of muscle mass from rapid growth and reproduction of cancer cells and their need for increased nutrients

27

Breast Cancer
-Cachexia Clinical Manifestations

1. Weight loss, fatigue & weakness
2. Loss of strength, Activity Intolerance
3. Constipation

28

Breast Cancer
-Cachexia Clinical Therapies

1. Nutritional counseling
2. Increased caloric intake
3. Periods of rest and activity
4. Monitoring weight
5. Monitor I&O

29

Breast Cancer
-Tamoxifen

1. Oral medication that interferes w/ estrogen activity
2. Watch for development of DVT's