Flashcards in Brainscape China Booklet 6 c.1860-1997 Deck (43)
Give 4 changes to water transport in China 1860-1911.
European steamships (7 companies by 1881), China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company 1872 (33 ships by 1877) , Yangtze developed for trade, Fuzhou shipyard 1872.
What caused changes to water transport 1860-1911? (give 3 causes)
European trade, British navy (Opium War), USA gunboats to protect missionaries, extraterritoriality, Self Strenghtening Movement 1970s-90s.
Other than development, give 3 other effects of water transport development 1860-1911.
Foreign occupation and exploitation, anti-foreign feeling (Boxer Risings c1890s+), foreign mass produced goods disrupt Chinese artisan economy, weakening of Qing Dynasty
Give 4 examples of railway development in China 1876-1980.
Baoshan railway 1876 (destroyed by Qing), Tianjin coal mine transport 1881 (Li Hongzhang - Self Strenghtening), 1904 Qing government investment to stop foreign monopoly, Rights Recovery Movement and Boards of Communication and Finance nationalise the railways in 1904 (very unpopular), Railway Protection Movement 1911 protests against Qing, 1911-25 Sun Yat-sen achieved little development, 1928-49 Japanese develop railway network in Manchuria and Chiang Kai-sheck responded with 5 year Railway Construction Plan, PRC 1949-65 built 700 miles per year, 1966-75 20% decline due to Cultural Revolution, 1975 Decision on Improving Railways set up modern railway.
What caused developments to the railway 1876-1980?
Foreign occupation and exploitation, trade, preparation for war, modernisers such as Li Hongzhang, Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping.
Other than development, give 3 other effects of railway development 1876-1980.
Foreign occupation and exploitation, trade, anti-foreign feeling (Boxers and anti-Japanese), development of industry, war.
When was the height of road development 1860-42?
1830s and 40s. Chiang Kai-shek built thousands of miles to fight Japanese and CCP. Foreigners built the Burma road in 1942 to relieve China in 1938 rom Japanese occupation (although closed 1940-45).
What caused road development in the 1830s and 40s?
Foreign occupation, War, Foreign support (Germans in preparation for war with Japan and British in Burma), Chiang Kai-shek.
Give 3 examples of telegraph development 1869-1930.
1869 China Submarine Telegraph Company set up by British to link China to Britain via India. Li Hongzhang's Self-Strenghtening Movement set up 76 stations for the Chinese Imperial Telegraph Administration, the USA set up the American Federal Telegraph Company in the 1920s and from 1937 Japan took over all telegraph companies.
What caused telegraph development 1869-1930?
Foreign occupation and exploitation, Self Strengthening Movement, War.
When was the height of air transport development 1929-1997?
Althought the Americans introduced the China National Aviation Corporation in 1937, gave the 14th US Airforce to Chiang Kai-shek to fight the Japanese 1937+ and funded/supplied an Air Force to the GMD through Lend Lease in the early 1940s, most air development was from 1980+ Air planes and passengers increased 436% from 1979-89. The Civil Aviation Adminstration of China (CAAC) was privatised in 1985. NOTE: Other than some Soviet investment in the 1950s, air transport all but ceased development under Mao (considered bourgeois)
What caused air transport development 1929-1997?
Foreign loans and equipment, Deng Xiaoping and economic necessity 1980+
In 1860 China had a mostly agricultural economy except for textiles. Describe textile production at this time.
Domestic (at home) also known as a cottage industry. Mostly women spinning and weaving silk. They could not compete with the new British factories that manufactured cotton.
Give 3 changes to the textile industry 1860-1930.
1842 Treaty of Nanjing brought cheaper British cloth from India, 1890s textile factories (built by foreigners and Self Strengthening entrepreneurs like Li Hongzhang), 1920s Shanghai factories from 30,000 to 131000 workers by 1930, trade unionism in Shanghai.
What impact did textile development have on early industrial development in China?
Women in factories (especially in the east), trade unionism, anti foreign feeling as domestic economy could not compete, urbanisation, factory production did not overtake domestic production until 1936.
If Japan got raw materials from China, cheap labour for manufacture and a market for goods what did some Chinese believe would be the benefits for China? (Before Japanese occupation)
Raw Materials would give China profit, manufacturing would train and provide expertise and markets would bring in new, more technical goods.
Give 3 results of Japanese industrialisation in Manchukuo.
6 billion yen worth of investment, building of infrastructure (roads, bridges, railway and canals), trade, access to raw materials e.g. mines, telegraph, ports, capitalism
The First 5 Year Plan 1952-57 was somewhat successful, particularly in developing heavy industry. Give three achievements.
Coal, steel, machine tools, trucks, chemicals all exceeded targets. Infrastructure through capital projects such as Yangtze bridg, 9% economic growth rate
What factors allowed for the success of the First 5 Year Plan 1952-57?
Sino-Soviet treaty of 1950 brought 10,000 advisors, technology and loans, further extended by Sino Soviet Scientific and Technical Cooperation Agreement 1954, food exports (rice bowl of Asia) helped, PRC command economy with SOEs (state owned enterprise), slashing defence and administration budgets to pay for economic development, mobilising the masses.
Electrification of China happened between 1949-1997. Name 3 causes.
Mao's First 5 Year Plan and Soviet expertise, centrally planned until 1977 but CCP devolved to local governments in 1961 and then put officially under the control of TVAs (Town and Village Areas) in 1983.
Was elecrification 1949-1997 successful?
Yes: one billion people had access by 1999 BUT cities and industry relied on coal (polution) whilst countryside relied on hydroelectric (dams). Shortages.
Did Mao resent technological innovation? Evidence?
Yes: seen as Western and capitalist, believed in the power of the masses over technology, Cultural Revolution is a good example of Mao's resentment BUT seemed to open up to prospect in later life (Zhou Enlai convinced him) e.g. trade with Hong Kong and Nixon visit in 1972.
Deng Xiaoping is credited with bringing China into the 20th Century from 1979+. Examples in support?
1979 visit to USA and trade developed, encouraged western investment, complied with IMF and World Bank for investment, improved relations with ZOPFRAN and Japan for trade and investment, set up SEZs, rehabilitated academics imprisoned during Cultural Revolution, 1985 National Conference on Science and Technology, made China a manufacturing centre ($10billion to $24billion worth of exports 1978 to 1985.)
What were the SEZs?
Special Economic Zones. Started with Hong Kong then extended to a range of cities. Incentives such as tax breaks and limited PRC controls to encourage foreign investment, gateways into mainland China that allowed PRC to control foreign influence without restricting foreign investment.
What were the main obstacles to economic growth in the 19th century?
Concept of Chinese superiority, status quo and Confucian beliefs (do not challenge government), inability to see the benefits of industrialisation, ignorance of foreign development
There was some economic development in the 19th century, such as industrialisation in the eastern port cities and Manchuria, banking and finance. What caused this?
European traders, missionaries, imperialist governments e.g. Britain, modernising Chinese merchants such as Li Hongzhang and the Self Strengthening movement, Yangtze river trade.
What was the movement, initiated by Li Honghzhang, in the 1860s called and what were its main aims 1860-90?
Self Strengthening Movement: economic and technological development to then force out foreigners. Preserve the Qing by adopting and adapting western technologies, government control and self-sufficiency. Later calls for political liberalisation.
What did the Self Strengthening Movement achieve?
Munitions (Tianjin Arsenal) and Fuzhou Shipyard, coal mines, cotton factories, telegraph and postal service and steamship companies in North East, Imperial Bank of China to challenge HSBC
Which individuals encouraged the Self Stregthening Movement?
Li Honghzhang and Shen Xuanhuai, also support from Prince Gong in 1898