Flashcards in Brainscape China Booklet 5 1978-97 Deck (42)
Who were the 5 permanent UN Security Council members upon creation in 1946?
USSR, USA, France, Britain and Nationalist China
When did the PRC replace the GMD as the Chinese representative in the UN?
In the 1970s China abstained 32% on controversial UN decisions, but in the 1980s only 7%. Explain why.
In the 1970s China was maintaining relations, but by the 1980s China felt more confident due to her growing economic power.
Name 4 benefits of being in the UN Security Council for China.
International recognition, equality, trade links, only non Western country
Give one argument AGAINST joining the UN.
Sacrifice ideology - commitment to Communism.
Give one example where China acted in her own interest in the Security Council.
1980s - blocked appointment of US Secretary in favour of Tanzanian, 1980s - blocked USSR invasion of Afghanistan, 1990 - supported invasion of Iraq in exchange for a large loan.
How did the UN respond to the Tiananmen incident of 1989?
No direct sanctions (due to trade) but objection to infringement of human rights.
What was the Pro Democracy Movement 1976 to 1989?
A growing student movement for liberal reforms as a response to liberal economic developments, opening up to the West, government corruption, 1986 economic slump and urban overcrowding.
Name one man linked to the development of the Pro Democracy movement.
Wei Jingsheng (writer) or Hu Yaobang (CCP Secretary - moderniser) or Zhao Ziyang (Hu's replacement)
What role did 'Democracy Wall' in Beijing play in the growth of the Pro Democracy movement?
People posted anti Maoist writings on the wall which Deng Xiaoping tolerated as it helped his power, however when calls for liberalisation of PRC and Deng appeared, he wanted to crush it.
What caused the Tiananmen Square Massacre of June 1989?
Demonstrations after death of Hu Yaobang (moderniser), petitions for government reform refused, 40 universities involved in sit ins and hunger strikes in Tiananmen Square during Gorbachev (Soviet Premiere) visit, Zhao Ziyang sacked and replaced with Li Penguin, Li and Deng committed to crush protests and make and example 'take the square at all costs' .
Why was Deng Xiaopeng so committed to crushing the Prodemocracy movement?
Economic but not liberal reformer. Felt China was not ready for democracy.
What does IMF stand for?
International Monetary Fund.
How is the IMF different than World Bank?
The IMF gives loans to stabilise governments and economies whereas the World Bank gives loans for specific projects e.g. Green energy.
To get IMF assistance, what did the PRC have to agree to?
Decentralisation, free market values, improved taxation, foreign loans, Ministry of Finance and State Planning Commission set up
What is a free marked economy?
Individuals make decisions, unobstructed competition, no government intervention. (Can happen in a communist country with State Owned Enterprise as long as the government does not manipulate with regulation or subsidies.
Name 2 benefits of IMF assistance.
Rebalanced economy in 1980, introduced considered state planning, rural development (health, education, reduction of poverty, transport).
To get World Bank support, what did the PRC have to agree to?
World Bank report - looked into 5 year plans and made recommendations.
Give 2 specific examples of World Bank investment in China.
1980s - $200 million for university development, $125 million for freight, $60 million for irrigation, $75 million for agricultural education, $30 billion for industrialisation, $70 million to develop Investment Banking.
Other than investment, how else did China benefit from the World Bank? Name one.
Cost-benefit analysis introduced, modern technologies like power generation, disconnected business from direct state control, more efficient taxation.
When did China develop trade with the EEC (European Economic Community)?
What is a bilateral trade agreement?
Reducing or eliminating trade tariffs, export restraints or other trade barriers equally between two countries. Much more favourable than the unequal treaties.
How did China's relationship with Africa change by the 1990s?
Bilateral trade, dropped financing and advising revolutionary groups, encouraged African nations to comply with IMF and World Bank.
What was ZOPFRAN?
Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (East Asia = Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Philippines, Burma and Indonesia) Bilateral investment and trade. China emerged as dominant regional economic power.
Why was it in China's interest to cooperate with Japan (even after the attrocities of WWII)?
Technology and expertise.
Why was it in Japan's interest to cooperate with China?
Markets for technology, raw materials (oil, coal and food)
What were the terms of the Bilateral Communique between Japan and China in 1972?
Recognised the PRC and stated no superpower existed in Asia.
1975-78 Peaceful coexistence was established between Japan and China. What did it entail?
Any concerns would be resolved without force, no future Sino-Soviet Alliance. No regional dominance for either country.
Where was a lot of Japanese investment focused in China?
Industrial plants, construction material and low interest loans especially Baoshan Steel Complex. (Northeast)