Flashcards in Brainscape China Booklet 3 c1931-45 Deck (40)
Why was Japan more industrially developed than China by 1920?
Adopted and adapted western technologies in the 19th century, militarisation (government contracts), American investment and trade
List 5 reasons why Japan was interested in China before 1931.
Raw materials, living space, East Asian 'co prosperity' sphere (build an empire), racial superiority, fear of USSR expansion, collapse of US trade (Wall Street Crash of 1929 and Great Depression)
Who succeeded Sun Yatsen as leader of the GMD (Nationalists) in 1925?
Chiang Kai-shek (aka Jiang Jieshi) - military man trained at the Whampoa Military Academy. Very anti-CCP.
What was the name of Chiang's campaign to unify MOST of China?
Northern Expedition 1926-27
Name the 3 key events in the development of the CCP 1920-1936.
1920 Formation of the CCP (with Soviet support), 1923-1927 United Front between CCP and GMD, Long March (Jiangxi to Yana's) 1934-36.
Describe the Tanaka Memorial, 1927.
Baron Tanaka's (prime minister) declaration that Japan must expand to survive. Conquest of Manchuria to lead to occupation of China (Has ben argued to be a fake).
A disease of the skin, opposed to a disease of the heart. What is this referring to?
Chiang's focus on defeating the CCP (heart) over the Japanese (skin)
What was the Kwantung Army?
The Japanese forces stationed in north east Manchuria.
Why can the Mukden Incident be a result of insubordination (not following orders).
Kwantung army, trying to act before Tokyo government reigned them in, blew up railway - blamed Chinese and used as an excuse to get Japanese government to attack Manchuria in 1931.
Anti-Japanese feeling spread. How did Chiang respond to Japanese aggression?
Withdrew forces (Zhang Xueliang aka Young Marshal), appealed to League of Nations, focused attacks on CCP
How did the League of Nations respond to China's appeal in 1931?
League set up the Lytton Commission to investigate and report Japan's involvement.
Why wouldn't the west intervene militarily to stop Japan in Manchuria in the '30s?
1930s economic problems due to the Wall Street Crash and horrors of WWI meant western nations were unwilling to get dragged into costly war.
Who was installed as the Manchukuo head of state in 1932 and why?
Puyi, as a Manchu and former emperor, would give legitimacy to the state.
How did Japan develop Manchukuo? 3 examples
Built infrastructure such as roads, railway and an airline, set up department stores, developed industry such as mining, developed military defence (Kwantung Army)
How did the Chinese react to the invasion of Manchuria?
Boycotted Japanese goods (sales were cut by 2/3) Protests and uprisings (guerrilla campaigns) against Japanese industry and civilians in the north and Shanghai.
Why did Japan bomb and then occupy Shanghai with 70,000 troops in January 1932
To 'teach China a lesson' for boycotts, uprisings and attacks on Japanese living China and for the GMD/NRA opposition.
Why did Chiang retreat from Taiwan and ask for a peace treaty in 1933?
Chiang did not think China was ready. Adopted a policy of 'appeasement'. Wanted to defeat CCP, then worry about Japan. Hoped USSR or USA would intervene.
What was the Treaty called that gave Manchuria to Japan.
Treaty of Tanggu, May 1933.
How did the Treaty of Tanggu embolden Japan?
Convinced sceptical moderates in government to support imperialistic army and push for more territory both in China and South East Asia.
What famous trek helped the CCP to survive relentless GMD attacks 1927 - 36?
Long March 1934-36
What was the Xi'an Incident of late 1936?
Chiang was kidnapped by one of his northern advisors, Zhang Xueliang, who tried to convince Chiang to stop attacks on CCP and deal with Japan.
Japanese and Chinese troops clashed at Marco Polo Bridge July 1937. Why were Japanese there?
Boxer Protocol 1901 stated that foreigners could keep troops in China to protect interests/civilians
Chiang finally resolved to fight after the Marco Polo Bridge incident. Where did he attack and why?
Shanghai to open a second front for Japan (other than Manchuria), outnumber and surprise Japanese, attract international interest/sympathy
Why did Chiang lose Shanghai by November 1937?
aerial bombing errors, Japanese naval support, lack of equipment (e.g. tanks) and ineffective shells, refugee chaos, 300,000 fatalities
Why did Japan march on Nanking in late 1937?
capital city, where the GMD retreated to, natural move inland
Give three reasons historians give for the Japanese atrocities in the 'Rape of Nanjing'.
break Chinese morale, send a message of fear across China, revenge for Chinese opposition, racism
Once Japan had secured the eastern seaboard, Chiang withdrew the capital to which city in 1938?
Name 3 other things Chiang moved west. (anticipating Japanese conquest of the east)
Art treasure, factories (2,000), government offices, universities, millions of refugees
There was one celebrated Chinese victory in the east. Who lead the Battle of Tai'erzhuang?
Li Zongren (shook view of Japanese invincibility)