Flashcards in Brainscape China Booklet 2 1894-1901 Deck (30)
What was Li Hongzhang famous for?
Self Strengthening movement 1870+, diplomacy with France 1884 and Japan 1895
Give 3 results of the Self Strengthening movement.
Tianjin Arsenal, Kaiping Coal Mine, Chinese Merchant Steam Ship Company, Manchurian Docks, Fuzhou Ship Yard, Naval Training, US educational exchanges etc.
Where and when was the Meiji Revolutions?
Why was Mitsubishi important to Japanese Imperialism?
Government defence contracts for Mitsubishi to build a powerful and modern Japanese Navy for empire building.
Why did Japan want Korea 1870+
Imperialism, Rice, weaken China, Markets for trade, few westerners to compete with
What were internal issues was Korea suffering from?
Pro Chinese/Anti Japanese, Pro Japanese/Anti Chinese and Anti Chinese-Japanese/Pro Korean uprisings.
What was the Treaty of Tientsin (aka Tianjin) 1885?
Japan and China agree NO troops in Korea, and must notify each other if they need to go in.
What tributary states were threatened by foreigners post 1870?
Burma and Tibet - Britain; Vietnam and Hanoi - France; Mongolia - Russia; Korea and Taiwan - Japan
What was the trigger of the Sino Japanese war in 1894?
Pro Japanese Korean official assassinated in Shanghai, uprisings in Korea, both China and Japan send troops but Japanese get there first.
Put events of the SJ war in order: Yalu River, Weihaiwai, Naval Battle, Manchuria, Seize Taiwan, Port Arthur, Pyong Yang, Chinese Transport Sunk
Transport sunk, Pyong Yang, Yalu River, Manchuria, Port Arthur, Naval Battle, Weihaiwei, Seize Taiwan
Name 3/5 terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki April 1895
Korea became a Japanese Protectorate, 200 million taels reparations to Japan, 4 new Treaty ports, Taiwan, NE Manchuria and Liaodong peninsula to Japan, Japan can industrialise any Chinese port.
Scramble for China - What did France get?
1885 Treaty of Tianjin - Vietnam now a French Protectorate and trading rights in SE China; 1897 French lease of SW China
Scramble for China - What did Britain get?
1842 Treaty of Nanjing and 1860 Treaty of Tianjin (Hong Kong, extraterritoriality etc.), 1896 Weihaiwei and lease on New Territories (expanded Hong Kong)
Scramble for China - What did Russia get?
1896 - Trans Siberian Railway, 1898 25 year lease of Port Arthur
Scramble for China - What did Germany get?
Naval Base in Shandong, 1897 seized Shandong Peninsula, 99 year lease on Jiaozhou Bay and concessions in North East to develop mines and railways
Who was Guangxu?
Cixi's nephew who took the throne in 1875 (until 1908).
What were the 100 Days of Reform?
1898 - 103-day national cultural, political, and educational reform movement to modernise China. (Emperor Guangxu)
Why did Cixi put Guangxu under house arrest 1898-1908?
She was conservative, he was too liberal. Fear of losing influence and westernisation of China.
Where did the Boxer Movement emerge from?
Rural boxing clubs. Anti-foreign (industrialisation, Christianity etc.).
What propaganda did the Boxers use to gain support?
Christians caused drought, Boxers impenetrable by foreign bullets, Red Lanterns (woman) could fly vs foreigners as well as drumming up anti foreign feeling.
What did Boxer attacks target in 1900?
Western infrastructure: Tore up railroads, knocked down telegraphs, burned buildings, attacked Beijing and Chinese Christian converts.
Who was Baron von Kittler and why was he murdered?
German ambassador. Sanctioned German troops to attack Chinese as a response to Boxers. Assassinated by a Boxer (not supported by Qing Government).
The Boxers laid siege to Beijing for 55 days. How were they finally defeated?
Cixi did not get support from regional banner armies, imperial force was week, western troops (9 nations) swept through Tianjin, Dagu forts and took Beijing.
Why was Cixi reluctant to ban the Boxers, which made it look like she supported them, angering westerners?
Believed that this was a Western coup to put Guangxu back on the throne.
The Boxer Protocol was signed in 1901. What humiliating terms did the Qing have to accept?
War guilt, $450 million reparations, arsenals and forts destroyed, foreign troops in Beijing permanently
Both Cixi and Guangxu died in 1908, who succeeded them?
Puyi, the two year old nephew of Guangxu under Regents: Prince Chun and Puyi's adoptive mother Longyu
Cixi and Puyi attempted administrative reforms and improvements to infrastructure (e.g. railway). How did they pay for it?
High interest western loans 1902-08 and again in 1910 as well as tax rises in 1902 and 1909, finally a failed attempt to nationalise the railways in 1911.
Who was Sun Yatsen (1866-1925)?
A revolutionary who spread republican ideas to educated China. Exiled by the Qing, spent 1896-1911 raising awareness, funds and weapons for revolution. Key organiser of the Wuchang Uprising. Started the Guomindang (GMD or Nationalist Party).
Where and why did the Wuchang Uprising (10/10/1911) aka Double Tenth start?
Wuchang, central provinces against the poor leadership of the Imperial Government in Beijing.