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How do you assess nutritional status? (5 ways)

1. Determine typical food intake
2. Analyze nutrient intake
3. Evaluate physical health
4. Consider medical history
5. Assess with laboratory tests


What are 3 DRIs?

Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
Adequate Intake (AI)
Upper Limit (UL)


Define recommended dietary allowance

consumption of this amount of the nutrient meets the needs of 97% of the population (set 2 standard deviations above the EAR)


Define adequate intake (AI)

AI values approximate the amount of nutrient that sustains health


Define Upper Limit (UL)

The highest amount of that nutrient that will not promote symptoms of toxicity in the majority of healthy individuals. Intake should not exceed this value


What is the PA value stand for?

Physical activity coefficients


What is the PA value for adult men?

Sedentary - 1.00
Low active - 1.11
Active - 1.25
Very Active - 1.48


What is the PA value for adult women?

Sedentary - 1.00
Low active - 1.12
Active - 1.27
Very Active - 1.45


What does AMDRS stand for?

Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges


What is the AMDRS?

It is a range of intake for a particular energy source(protein, fat or carbohydrate) expressed as a percentage of total energy (kcal) that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients


What is the AMDRS for 19 and over?

Total carbohydrate (percent of energy) : 45-65%
Total protein (percent of energy) : 10- 35%
Total Fat (percent of energy) : 20 - 35%


When was the last Canadian food guide released?



What were 7 major components of the 2007 Canadian food guide?

- Different recommendations for men/women, different age groups
- Four "food groups" (vegetables and fruits, grain products, meat and alternatives, and milk and alternatives
- Info on serving sizes, tips for selecting foods wisely from each group, further recommendations for women off childbearing age, older adults, children
- specific examples of what counts as a serving from each group
- advice on how to cater to the smaller appetites of children
- Specific recommendations on how to choose foods wisely from each group
- recommends a folic acid supplement for women of childbearing age, and a vitamin D supplement for adults over 50


What are three guiding principles of the new Canadian Food Guide?

1. A variety of nutritious foods and beverages are the foundation for healthy eating
2. Processed or prepared foods and beverages high in sodium, sugars or saturated fat undermine healthy eating
3. Knowledge and skills are needed to navigate the complex food environment and support healthy eating


What are 3 things the new Canadian food guide considers?

Determinants of health
cultural diversity


What does the first guiding principle of the new Canadian food guide recommends? 3 things

- Regular intake of water
- Regular intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and protein-rich foods, especially plant-based sources of protein
- Inclusion of foods that contain mostly unsaturated fat instead of foods that contain mostly saturated fat


What does the second guiding principle of the new Canadian food guide recommends? 2 things

- Limited intake of processed or prepared foods high in sodium, sugars or saturated fat
- Avoidance of processed or prepared beverages high in sugars


What does the third guiding principle of the new Canadian food guide recommends? 3 things

- Selecting nutritious foods when shopping or eating out
- Planning and preparing healthy meals and snacks
- Sharing meals with family and friends whenever possible


What are six of the principles of the Mediterranean diet?

- Emphasizes plant-based diet, high in vegetables, whole grains, legumes and nuts, plant oils
- Limits on red meats and sweets
- Be physically active
- Enjoy meals with others
- Eat a moderate amount of fish and seafood
- Eat a few poultry, eggs cheese and yogurt


What has the Mediterranean diet shown?

It has been showed to be associated with reduced risk of heart disease


What are ten Brazilian guidelines?

1. Prepare meals from staple and fresh foods
2. Use oils, fats, sugar and salt in moderation
3. Limit consumption of ready-to-consume food and drink products
4. Eat regular meals, paying attention and in appropriate environments
5. Eat in company whenever possible
6. Buy food at places that offer varieties of fresh foods.
7. Develop, practice share and enjoy your skills in food preparation and cooking
8. Plan your time to give meals and eating proper time and space
9. When you eat out, choose restaurants that serve freshly made dishes and meals.
10. Be critical of the commercial advertisement of food products


What are the 5 mandatory information on food labels?

a) Statement of identity (Ex. Apple juice)
b) Net contents of the package (ex. 591 mL, 50 g)
c) Name and address of manufacturer, packer,
d) List of ingredients (listed in descending order by
e) Nutrition information (Nutrition Facts panel. See
next slide)


Define Nutrient Content Claims

Description of the amount of nutrient in a food


Define sodium free

Less than 5 mg of sodium per reference amount and stated serving size


Define reduced in calories

At least 25% less energy than the food to which it is being compared


Define source of dietary fiber

at least 2g fiber per serving


Define excellent source of (vitamin or mineral name)

At least 25% of RDA


What is the purpose of Diet-Related Health Claims

It outline the nutritional benefits of certain foods and/or their components on overall health or reduced disease risk


What are the two type of diet-related health claims?

Function claims
Disease-reduction claims


What are function claims

Statements of the well-known beneficial effects of a food or a food constituent on the normal function of the body