Flashcards in BPK chapter 6 Deck (84)
What is protein composed of? 1 thing
How many combinations of amino acids make up all the proteins?
How many amino acids are essential?
9 amino acids
What is considered complete proteins?
Complete proteins have all 9 essential amino acids
What is considered incomplete proteins?
When they lack at least 1 or more essential amino acids
What are 11 nonessential amino acids
Alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine and tyrosine
What are 9 essential amino acids?
Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine
What do each amino acid contain? 3 things
An amino group, an acid group and unique side chain
What are a source of complete proteins? 1 thing
Animal source of protein
What do animal source of protein contain?
Vitamin B, iron, zinc, calcium and low in fiber
What is diet high in red processed meat associate with? 1 thing
Higher risk of heart disease
What is one source of incomplete protein?
Plant source of protein (ex. legumes)
What are 7 things plant source of protein contains?
Vitamin B, iron, zinc, calcium, high in fiber, high in unsaturated fat and phytochemicals
What is diet high in legumes and seeds associated with?
Lower risk of heart disease
What is one difference between amino acids and sugars/fatty acids?
What is one thing amino acids linked by?
What does amino acids form when linked by peptide bonds?
They form polypeptides
Is the shape of a protein essential to its function?
What is the primary structure of the protein?
How is the secondary structure of protein formed?
Hydrogen bonds between side chains in polypeptide help form alpha-helices and beta pleated sheets which form its secondary structure.
How is the tertiary structure of the protein formed?
Disulphide, hydrogen bonds etc. between side chains form the tertiary structure.
How is the quaternary structure of the protein formed?
The binding of 2+ polypeptide chains together form the quaternary structure.
What is hemoglobin?
Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Hemoglobin is made up of four protein molecules (globulin chains) that are connected together
What is hemoglobin known as?
The alteration of a protein's 3D structure
What are 3 ways to denarture a protein?
Heat, acid, and agitation
What happens when protein loses its 3D structure?
Its loses its original function
What are 7 steps of the protein digestion and absorption?
1. In the mouth, chewing begins the mechanical breakdown of protein
2. In the stomach, HCl acid and the enzyme pepsin begin the chemical digestion of protein
3. In the small intestine, protein digestion enzyme secreted from the pancreas along with those in the microvilli, break down polypeptides into animo acids, dipeptides and tripeptides.
4. A variable of transport proteins move the products of protein digestion into the mucosal cell. Some amino acids share the same transport system.
5. Dipeptides and tripeptides can enter the mucosal cell. Once inside, they are broken down into single amino acids.
6. Amino acids pass from the mucosal cell into the blood and travel to the liver which regulates the distribution of amino acids to the rest of the body.
7. Little dietary protein is lost in the feces.
How are individual amino acids absorbed? 3 things
The protein's 3D structure must first be denatured and the polypeptide must be broken down into individual amino acids to be absorbed. Amino acids are then absorbed into the small intestine by active transport.