Flashcards in BPK 110 Chapter 9 Deck (112)
What are 8 bad things about having too much body fat?
- Cardiovascular disease including high blood lipids, atherosclerosis, hypertension and stroke.
- Cancers of the breast, colon, prostate and uterus.
- Depression and low self-esteem.
- Asthma and sleep apnea.
- Type 2 diabetes
- Abnormal menstrual cycle and infertility.
What is a healthy weight?
A weight that minimizes health risks and is sustainable
What is classified as underweight?
Body mass index of under 18.5kg
What is body mass index measured in? 2 things
Kilograms/(height in meters)^2 and weight circumference
What is classified as healthy weight?
Body mass index of 18.5 - 25
What is classified as overweight?
Body mass index of 25+
What is classified as obese?
Body mass index of 30+
What is two things a healthy body composition made out of?
Lean body mass and relatively low levels of body fat
Define lean body mass
Body mass made up of muscle, bone and internal organs
What is the problem with body mass index?
It doesn't take account for body composition
What are 5 ways to measure body composition?
Skinfold thickness (uses pitchers to measure)
Underwater weighing (uses displacement in water to measure)
Air displacement (uses displacement in air to measure)
Bioelectrical impedance (a machine that measure body composition)
Dual Energy Xray (DXA) (expensive machine that accurately measures body composition)
Define visceral fat
Body fat that surrounds the organs
Define subcutaneous fat
Body fat that is under the skin
______ fat is associated with higher health risks than _________ fat
Visceral fat is associated with higher health risks than subcutaneous fat
Fun fact: Waist circumference is used to along with body mass index to estimate visceral fat
What is classified obese when using waist circumference for males?
What is classified obese when using waist circumference for females?
What does having high waist circumference associate with?
Increased health risk
Where do you get energy in from? 4 things
Fat, carbohydrates, alcohol and protein
How does your body use energy? 3 things
Basal metabolic rate, thermic effect of food and physical activity
How much kcal/gram does fat give?
How much kcal/gram does carbohydrate give?
How much kcal/gram does protein give?
How much kcal/gram does alcohol give?
About what percentage does basal metabolic rate use in energy?
About what percentage does thermic effect of food use in energy?
About what percentage does physical activity use in energy?
What determines the basal metabolic rate?
What are 10 factors that can increase basal metabolism besides genetics?
Higher lean body mass, exercise, greater height and weight, male gender, pregnancy, lactation, growth, fever, elevated thyroid hormone levels and stimulant drugs such as caffeine and tobacco.