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Flashcards in BPK 110 Chapter 8 Deck (124)
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1

How much of our body weight is composed of water?

60%

2

How much water is found inside our cells?

2/3rds

3

How much water is found outside our cells?

1/3rd

4

What are two things water content of intra/extracell spaces depend on?

Solute concentrations and blood pressure

5

What forces water out of the blood?

Blood pressure

6

What is solute concentrations made up of? (3 things)

It is made up of proteins, sodium, potassium etc.

7

How does water move to achieve proper solute concentrations?

Water moves by osmosis to achieve proper solute concentration

8

Do we store water in our body?

no

9

What are 3 ways to gain water intake?

Food, drinks and metabolism

10

What are 3 ways to loss water intake?

Feces, urine and evaporation

11

What are 5 things that help maintain blood pressure?

Adequate water intake by maintaining blood volume
Thirst reflex
Kidneys
Constriction of blood vessels
Heart rate

12

Why is it important to maintain blood pressure?

Because it is critical for nutrient delivery

13

What are the 3 main hormones that regulate water balance?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Angiotensin II
Aldosterone

14

What are 5 functions of water?

Solvent (Primary constituent of blood and environment for chemical reactions)
Metabolism and transport
Protection (lubrication, tears and cushioning)
Hydrolysis/dehydration reactions
Regulation of body temperature

15

What are the body symptoms of water deficiency? 4 things

Deficiencies in electrolytes
Decrease in blood volume
Impaired nutrient delivery
Waste removal

16

What are the 6 early symptoms of water deficiency?

Thirst, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, dry eyes/mouth and dark urine

17

What are the 5 late symptoms of water deficiency?

Nausea, difficulty concentrating, confusion, disorientation, and collapse

18

What percentage of water loss may result in death?

Water loss that is greater than 10-20%.

19

What can water intoxication lead to? 7 things

Hyponatremia
Water moving into tissue that leads to swelling which causes disorientation, convulsions, nausea, muscle cramps, slurred speech and confusion.

20

How do water needs vary? 4 things

Activity level, various conditions, ambient temperatures and diet

21

What are 4 things that will increase water intake needs?

Low calorie diet
High fiber, high salt diets
Caffeine or alcohol
High protein diet

22

Why does low calorie diet increase water needs?

More water is needed to excrete wastes from fat/protein metabolism

23

Why does caffeine and alcohol increase water intake?

Because they are diuretics which means they impair antidiuretic hormone (ADH) action which increases the urge to urinate

24

Define diuretics

They impair antidiuretic hormone which increases the urge to urinate

25

How many essential minerals are found in plants/animals?

Less than 20 essential minerals

26

How many major minerals do we need per day?

We need more than 100mg of major minerals per day.

27

How many trace minerals do we need per day?

We need less than 100 mg of trace minerals per day.

28

What are 11 minerals found in grain products?

Iron, zinc, selenium, copper, magnesium, chromium, sulphur, manganese, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus

29

What are 5 minerals found in vegetables and fruits?

Iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and molybdenum

30

What are 6 minerals found in milk and alternatives?

Iodine, molybdenum, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and zinc.