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Flashcards in BPK 110 Chapter 4 Deck (123)
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1

Define unrefined carbohydrates

Carbohydrates sources eaten in their natural form or with minimal processing. Usually from whole food

2

Define refined carbohydrates

Processed carbohydrates. Typically have a portion of the grain removed and these type of carbohydrates can be a source of empty calories;lower in nutrient density

3

Define empty calories

calories from food containing no nutrients

4

Define enrichment

A type of fortification which adds back some, not all, of the nutrients lost in processing

5

What do whole grains contain? 1 thing

Kernel

6

What do kernel contain? 3 things

Germ
Bran
Endosperm

7

What are 4 type of grains

Oats
Wheat
Barley
Rye

8

What are endosperms?

The inner big part of the grain. Primarily starch and also contains protein, vitamins and minerals

9

What are bran?

The outer part of the grain. Fibre and high in vitamins and minerals

10

What are germ?

The inner small part of the grain. Source of oil and rich in vitamin E

11

What is the difference between refined grain products and unrefined grain products? 2 things

- Refined grain products just contain the endosperm while the unrefined has everything
- Refined grain products last longer than unrefined grain products

12

What contains most of the carbohydrates of a grain wheat?
A) Bran
B) Endosperm
C) Germ

B) Endosperm

13

What contains most of the fiber and iron of a grain wheat?
A) Bran
B) Endosperm
C) Germ

A) Bran

14

What is germ of the grain wheat high in? 2 things

Protein and fat

15

What can our body absorb?
A) Monosaccharides
B) Disaccharides
C) Polysaccharides
D) None of the above

A) Monosaccharides

16

What are monosaccharides? what are disaccharides and polysaccharides?

Monosaccharides = single sugar units
Disaccharides = 2 sugar units
Polysaccharides = 3+ sugar units

17

What are sugar, starches and fibre made out up?

Compounds of single sugar units. So in other words, polysaccharides

18

What are 3 things that are monosaccharides?

Glucose
Galactose
Fructose

19

What are 3 things that are disaccharides

Maltose
Sucrose
Lactose

20

What is glucose?

A monosaccharide carbohydrate That circulates in the blood

21

What is galactose?

A monosaccharide carbohydrate that is part of milk sugar

22

What is lactose?

A disaccharide carbohydrate that is made up of glucose linked to galactose, and is often called milk sugar. It is found in milk, ice cream and other dairy products

23

What is fructose?

A monosaccharide carbohydrate that is found in fruits and vegetables. It makes up about half the sugar in honey and in the high-fructose corn syrup used to sweeten many foods and beverages.

24

What is maltose?

A disccharides carbohydrates that is made out of two glucose units. It is formed when starch is digested. The sweet taste you experience while eating beard is the maltose formed as the enzyme salivary amylase digests the starch within the beard.

25

What is sucrose?

A disaccharides carbohydrates that is made up of glucose and fructose. It is known as sugar.

26

What are intrinsic sugar?

Natural sugar found in food

27

Are there any benefit or nutritional value to eating added sugar?

No

28

What do eating added sugar contribute to? 8 things

The consumption of empty calories because of the low nutrient density.
It contributes to:
- increased risk of disease
- Cardiovascular disease
- Obesity
- Diabetes
- Addictive food tendencies
- Dental caries
- Some form of ance

29

What are three things that make up a polysaccharides glucose?

Glycogen
Starches
Fibre (cellulose)

30

Why can't the small intestine break down/absorb fibre?

Because it lacks the enzymes required to break the fibre down