Booklet 4 20th Century Part I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Booklet 4 20th Century Part I Deck (31)
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1

Who did St Mary's Hospital send to study infections in wounded soldiers during WWI?

Alexander Fleming

2

What germ caused septicaemia infections?

Staphylococci

3

How did Fleming discover penicillin in 1928?

By chance. Mould formed in one of his petri dishes whicle he was on holiday. It had killed the germ inside.

4

What test did Fleming fail to do which would have proved uesful?

He failed to inject penicillin into the blood stream.

5

Who developed the work of Fleming?

Florey and Chain who started to experiment on mice and humans in 1941.

6

Who did Florey and Chain first experiment on?

A policeman who had an infection from a rose. After initial improvement he died as there wasn't enough antobiotic available.

7

How did war affect penicillin?

War spread up production due to large injury rates.

8

Describe penicillin use during World War Two

In 1943 1,000 soldiers were helped but by 1945 250,000

9

What percentage of soldiers would have died without penicillin during WWII?

15 percent

10

How did the government help with penicillin production after WWII?

There was a huge sponsored programme to produce the wonder drug and it was used to treat diseases such as bronchitis wounds, abscesses and tonsillitis.

11

Name three other antibiotics produced after penicillin.

Streptomycin for treating TB, Tetracyline for skin infections and Mitomycin used against cancer.

12

Which drug for sleeping resulted in the birth of babies with porly formed limbs?

Thalidomide

13

Name two antibiotic resistant superbugs.

MRSA and Norovirus

14

When was the first open heart surgery performed?

1950

15

When was the first kidney transplant in the UK?

1960

16

When was the first heart transplant in the UK?

1967

17

When was the first hip replacement performed in Britain?

1972

18

When were MRI scans first used?

1987

19

When was the first full face transplant?

2008

20

List 4 examples of alternative medicine.

Hydrotherapy, aromatheraphy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture

21

During World War One, what did CCS stand for?

Casualty Clearing Stations

22

List 4 technological improvements in medicine during World War One.

Mobile xray units, blood transfusions, skin grafts, the Thomas splint

23

How many men suffered from shell shock during World War One?

80,000

24

Who developed the talking cure for shellshock?

William Rivers

25

Who developed new techniques in skin grafts?

Harold Gillies

26

In what year were different blood groups discovered?

1901

27

When anticoagulant was added to blood and how long would it last?

28 days

28

During World War Two, how many blood doners were used?

700,000

29

What was known as the Spanish Lady?

The influenza pandemic 1918 to 1919

30

How many people died in the flu pandemic 1918 to 1919

20-40 million (mostly 20-40 year olds)