Bone tissues 6b Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bone tissues 6b Deck (37)
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1

Growth zone

cartilage cells undergo mitosis, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

2

Transformation zone

older cells enlarge, the matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die and the matrix begins to deteriorate

3

Osteogenic zone

new bone formation occurs

4

Growth in length

cartilage continually grows and is replaced by bone

5

Remodeling

bone is resorbed and added by appositional growth

6

Alkaline phosphatase

is essential for mineralization of bone secreted by osteoblasts

7

Osteoid seam

unmineralized band of bone matrix

8

Bone Deposition

Occurs where bone is injured or added strength is needed
Requires a diet rich in protein, vitamins C, D, and A, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and manganese

9

Bone Resorption

Accomplished by osteoclasts

10

Resorption involves osteoclast secretion of

Lysosomal enzymes that digest organic matrix
Acids that convert calcium salts into soluble forms

11

Calcium is necessary for

Transmission of nerve impulses
Muscle contraction
Blood coagulation
Secretion by glands and nerve cells
Cell division

12

Rising blood Ca2+ levels trigger the thyroid to

release calcitonin

13

Calcitonin

stimulates calcium salt deposit in bone

14

Falling blood Ca2+ levels signal the parathyroid
glands to

release PTH

15

PTH signals osteoclasts to

degrade bone matrix and release Ca2+ into the blood

16

Bone fractures are classified by

The position of the bone ends after fracture
The completeness of the break
The orientation of the bone to the long axis
Whether or not the bones ends penetrate the skin

17

Nondisplaced

bone ends retain their normal position

18

Displaced

bone ends are out of normal alignment

19

Complete

bone is broken all the way through

20

Incomplete

bone is not broken all the way through

21

Linear

the fracture is parallel to the long axis of the bone

22

Transverse

the fracture is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone

23

Compound (open)

bone ends penetrate the skin

24

Simple (closed)

bone ends do not penetrate the skin

25

Common Types of Fractures - Comminuted

bone fragments into three or more pieces; common in the elderly

26

Common Types of Fractures - Spiral

ragged break when bone is excessively twisted; common sports injury

27

Common Types of Fractures - Depressed

broken bone portion pressed inward; typical skull fracture

28

Common Types of Fractures - Compression

bone is crushed; common in porous bones

29

Common Types of Fractures - Epiphyseal

epiphysis separates from diaphysis along epiphyseal line; occurs where cartilage cells are dying

30

Common Types of Fractures - Greenstick

incomplete fracture where one side of the bone breaks and the other side bends; common in children