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Essentials of Mammalian Biology Part Two > Body Movement > Flashcards

Flashcards in Body Movement Deck (8)
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Describe the structure of the skeleton

Axial skeleton which supports the axis of the body
A skull, backbone and rib cage in most vertebrates
Appendicular skeleton this supports the paired appendages (consists of shoulder girdle upper limbs, pelvic girdle and lower limbs)


Describe the four functions of the skeleton

A scaffold - supporting framework that also products many internal organs
Lever - movement
Mineral storage of calcium and phosphorous
Production of important blood cells


Describe types of bone

Long bones i.e. femur, these bones work as levers
Short bones i.e. trapezoid located in wrists and ankles. Involved in complex movements
Flat bones have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attach to muscles (cranial bones, bones of shoulder girdle)
Irregular bones - varied in shape, sizes and surface features (included in vertebrate)
Sesamoid bones located within tendons i.e. patella


Describe types of joints

Fixed joints are joined by fibrous connective tissue i.e. immoveable joints in skull
Semi moveable joints, joined by cartilage i.e. vertebrate
Moveable joints connected by a fibrous capsule containing synovial fluid i.e. glenohumeral


Describe joints as pivots

a freely moveable joint (diarthrosis) that allows only rotary movement around a single axis. The moving bone rotates within a ring that is formed from a second bone and adjoining ligament.


What are the characteristics of synovial joints?

Hinge - elbow and knee
Ball and socket - hip and shoulder
Pivot- base of skull
Saddle/condyloid - wrist
Gliding - spinal


What types of levers enables greater speed and range of motion

Third class levers
- act like a lacrosse stick. Force is between the fulcrum and the resistance. Can contract quickly and have a greater range of motion i.e. arm


What types of levers enable greater force development?`

First class levers
- act like a crowbar. Force is a long distance from the fulcrum enabling transfer of minimal force to overcome heavy resistance. Very efficient levers