What is the function of the diaphram?
The diaphragm, located below the lungs, is the major muscle of respiration. It is a large, dome-shaped muscle that contracts rhythmically and continually, and most of the time, involuntarily.
What is the function of the nasal cavity?
The nasal cavity is the inside of your nose. It is lined with a mucous membrane that helps keep your nose moist by making mucus so you won't get nosebleeds from a dry nose. There are also little hairs that help filter the air you breathe in, blocking dirt and dust from getting into your lungs.
What is the function of the pharynx aka throat?
the pharynx is part of the conducting zone for air into the lungs. Therefore, one of its primary functions is to warm and humidify air before it reaches the lungs.
What is the function of the Trachea? Aka windpipe
The primary function of the trachea is to transport air to and from the lungs
What is the function of the bronchus?
They are airways branching from the tranchea and entering the lungs
What do lungs do and what are they?
Loved elastic organs of breathing which enhance gas exchange between the internal environment and outside air
What is the bronchial tree?
Increasingly branched airways starting with two bronchi and ending at air sacs of lung tissue
Label this diagram
refer to picture
Overall - Alveolar sac
Thin things on outside - Pulmonary capillarys
True or False
The Air and blood are very close contact
What happens during the inhalation of the lungs?
During inhalation, the lungs expand with air and oxygen diffuses across the lung's surface, entering the bloodstream
What happens during the exhalation of the lungs?
During exhalation, the lungs expel air and lung volume decreases.
Which diagram represents compatible and incompatible blood cells
Left - Compatible
Right - incompatible
What happens if a donor donates blood to a recipient with a different blood type?
example B - A
The red blood cells from the donor agglutinate (stick together forming a mass) causing them to either burst distrupting kidney function or clump blocking blood flow in capillaries leading to strokes.
How is red blood cell count contolled (aka homeostasis of RBC)?
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone produced primarily by the kidneys, with small amounts made by the liver. EPO plays a key role in the production of red blood cells which are developed in red bone marrow. Therefore the kidney controlls the red blood cell count in the body.
What is a common treatment given to bone cancer patients that is related to the kidneys?
The hormone erythropoietin.
How is a blood vessel fixed after an injury such as a cut to the skin?
The wall of the vessel contracts, platelets then stick to the collagen fibres of the damaged vessel with the help of fibrin threads until a more permanent clot can form and no more bleeding can occur.
How are platelets formed in regards to fixing an injury to a blood vessel?
Thrombopoietin is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the liver and kidney which regulates the production of platelets as It stimulates the production and differentiation of megakaryocytes, the bone marrow cells that bud off large numbers of platelets that are used to clog holes in blood vessels.
What is EDTA in terms of blood?
It is an acids which functions to stop blood clotting by binding to calcium in the blood.
What are fibrin threads?
When tissue damage results in bleeding, fibrinogen is converted at the wound into fibrin by the action of thrombin, a clotting enzyme. Fibrin molecules then combine to form long fibrin threads that entangle platelets, building up a spongy mass that gradually hardens and contracts to form the blood clot.
What does a low WBC count indicate?
A low white blood cell count usually is caused by: Viral infections that temporarily disrupt the work of bone marrow. or Certain disorders present at birth (congenital) that involve diminished bone marrow function
What does a high WBC count indicate?
A high white blood cell count usually indicates: An increased production of white blood cells to fight an infection. A reaction to a drug that increases white blood cell production. A disease of bone marrow, causing abnormally high production of white blood cells.
What is the difference between normal red blood cells and iron-deficient blood cells?
Iron deficient blood cells appear less healthy giving an orange/yellow colour compared to the red colour that you would expect and your blood cells require iron to produce hemoglobin.
What is chronic myelogenous leukemia?
A slowly progressing and uncommon type of blood-cell cancer that begins in the bone marrow. It involves the individuals white blood cells becoming abnormal as they croud out normal cells in the blood.
What is sickle cell disease?
A group of disorders that cause red blood cells to become misshapen and break down.
With sickle cell disease, an inherited group of disorders, red blood cells contort into a sickle shape. The cells die early, leaving a shortage of healthy red blood cells (sickle cell anaemia) and can block blood flow causing pain (sickle cell crisis).
What type of mutation causes sickle cell disease and how does this affect the physical shape of the blood cell?
Missense mutation, the red blood cell becomes thin and semi circular similar to a half moon
What is the difference between T and B cells?
T cells can only recognize viral antigens outside the infected cells whereas B cells can recognize the surface antigens of bacteria and viruses