Blood Bank: AB ID and Pretransfusion Testing Flashcards Preview

Med Lab Tech Fall 2016 > Blood Bank: AB ID and Pretransfusion Testing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Bank: AB ID and Pretransfusion Testing Deck (147)
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1

What are the types of unexpected antibodies?

  • Immune alloantibodies
  • Naturally occurring antibodies
  • Passively acquired antibodies

2

What type of antibodies are produced in response to RBC stimulation through transfusion, transplantation, or pregnancy?

Immune alloantibodies

3

What type of antibodies may form as a result of exposure to environmental sources such as pollen, fungus, and bacteria, which have similar structures to some RBC antigens.

Naturally occurring antibodies

4

What are passively acquired antibodies?

Antibodies produced in one individual and then transmitted to another via plasma-containing blood components or derivatives such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)

5

These are antibodies that decrease the survival of RBCs possessing the target antigen.

Clinically significant antibodies

6

These antibodies are typically IgG that react at 37C or that react in the AHG phase of the IAT

Clinically significant antibodies

7

These are directed against antigens expressed on one's own RBCs and may mask the presence of clinically significant alloantibodies.

Autoantibodies

8

What is the traditional method for detecting antibodies?

The indirect antiglobulin test performed in a test tube

9

In the test tube for IAT, the patient's ________ or ________ is mixed with _________ that have known antigen content

Plasma or serum is mixed with RBCs that have known antigen content

10

What is the immediate spin phase used to detect?

Antibodies reacting at room temperature and possibly clinically insignificant cold antibodies

11

IAT must include these phases

37C and AHG

12

What is another name for AHG reagent?

Coombs' serum

13

The RBC reagents used in the antibody screen come from group ____ individuals who have been typed for the most common and most significant RBC antigens

Group O

14

Antibodies that react more strongly with cells having homozygous antigen expression are said to show _______

Dosage

15

True or False: As RBCs age, antigen expression begins to weaken

True

16

Definition: The difference in electrical potential between the surface of the RBC and the outer layer of the ionic cloud is called the ______ _________

Zeta potential

17

This enhancement reagent contains glycine in an albumin solution. In addition to lowering the zeta potential, it increases the uptake of antibody onto the RBC during the sensitization phase, increasing the possibility of agglutination.

Low Ionic Strength Solution (LISS)

18

This enhancement reagent removes water from the test system, thereby concentrating any antibodies present and increasing the degree of RBC sensitization

Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

19

This enhancement reagent can cause nonspecific aggregation of cells, so centrifugation after 37C incubation is not performed.

Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

20

Adding this reagent allows for the agglutination of incomplete antibodies

AHG

21

What are check cells?

Check cells are Rh-positive RBCs that have been coated with anti-D

22

What must be done if the Coombs' control cells fail to agglutinate?

The antibody screen must be repeated from the beginning

23

Antibodies of the Ig__ class react best at room temperature and lower and are capable of causing agglutination at immediate spin.

IgM

24

Antibodies of the Ig__ class react best at the AHG phase

IgG

25

Anti-N, anti-I, and anti-P1 are frequently Ig__

IgM

26

Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and Ss antigens are usually Ig__

IgG

27

True or False: Lewis and M antibodies may be IgG, IgM, or a mixture of both

True

28

What is the autologous control?

The patient's RBCs tested against the patient's serum or plasma in the same manner as the antibody screen

29

What does a positive antibody screen and negative autologous control indicate?

A positive antibody screen and a negative autologous control indicate the detection of an alloantibody

30

What might a positive autologous control mean?

Positive autologous control may indicate the presence of autoantibodies or antibodies to medications