What is a blood type and screen?
Blood typing is determining the blood type and Rh factor of a sample of blood
- A screen is looking for the most commonly found unexpected antibodies
The results of this test are good for 72 hours.
Why would a client need a blood transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs)?
Packed red blood cells are for active bleeding or the client has a very low hemoglobin and hematocrit level.
Why would a client get a blood transfusion of platelets?
Platelets are to treat thrombocytopenia or platelet disorders.
Why would a client get an infusion of fresh-frozen plasma?
An infusion of fresh frozen plasma is to replace clotting factors due to a clotting factor disorder.
Which clients would get an infusion of granulocytes?
Granulocytes are to boost the immune system for:
- a client with sepsis (systemic infection)
- neutropenic client that is unresponsive to antibiotics
- usually for clients getting chemo
What are the 4 blood types?
The 4 blood types are:
- Type A
- Type B
- Type AB
- Type O
Type O is the universal ________.
Type O is the universal dOnor. (remember the O in dOnor)
Anyone can receive type O blood.
Type AB is the universal _________.
Type AB is the universal recipient.
This client can receive blood from any blood type.
Type A can get blood from which other blood types?
Type A can get type A or O.
Type B can get blood from which other blood types?
Type B can get type B or O.
Type AB can get blood from which other blood types?
Type AB can get A, B, AB or O.
Type O can get blood from which other blood type?
Type O can only get type O.
What is Rh, Rh positive and Rh negative?
Rh is a protein on red blood cells:
- if you have it, you're Rh positive
- if you don't have it, you're Rh negative
☠️ Can an Rh negative client receive Rh positive blood?
☠️ Never! The client can die.
Rh positive blood will make antibodies against the Rh negative client and destroy the red blood cells.
Can a Rh positive client receive Rh negative blood?
What type of IV fluids is compatible with blood?
Normal saline, 0.9% - that's it, nothing else.
What gauge needle is given with blood?
Blood administration needs a larger gauge lumen such as 18 or 19.
This is to prevent the red blood cells from breaking as they go through the IV catheter.
Label the parts of blood tubing:
- blood bag
- blood information (Rh, ABO group, expiration date, ID number)
- drip chamber
- normal saline bag
- roller clamp
Why is there Y tubing and a filter for blood tubing?
The Y tube is too mix the blood with normal saline
The filter is too filter out blood clots, clumps of platelets and white blood cells
To get blood into the filter chamber should you squeeze it?
Never, you can damage the filter. Let it fill up from gravity.
How long should blood be started after receiving it from the blood bank?
Start the blood product within 30 minutes of receiving it from the blood bank.
Over how long should 1 unit of blood be given?
Give 1 unit of blood within 4 hours.
How often are vital signs taken when blood is being administered?
Vital signs are taken:
- right before the blood is started
- 15 minutes after it's started (unless the client shows symptoms - get vital signs earlier)
- at least every 30 minutes to 1 hour until it's finished
- a final set of vital signs after the infusion is completed
How long should the nurse stay with the client once the blood transfusion is started?
Stay with the client for the first 15 minutes to monitor for transfusion reactions.
Who verifies the client and blood product right before the blood is started?
2 Registered Nurses will verify the blood product. They will confirm:
- correct client
- blood type and Rh factor of the client
- correct blood product and blood type
☠️ What is a hemolytic blood transfusion reaction?
☠️ A hemolytic reaction is when there is an incompatibility with the blood product that causes the red blood cells to get destroyed.
☠️ What is an allergic blood transfusion reaction?
☠️ An allergic reaction is when there is an incompatibility with the blood product that causes an allergic response such as mild itching to severe anaphylaxis.
☠️ What is a febrile/bacterial/septic blood transfusion reaction?
☠️ A febrile /bacterial /septic reaction is when there is bacteria in the blood that causes a systemic infection.
☠️ How is septicemia treated when acquired from a blood transfusion?
☠️ Treatment for septicemia from a blood transfusion:
- get blood cultures of the blood and blood bag
- give O2
- IV fluids
- vasopressors: to increase the blood pressure from septic shock
- steroids: to decrease inflammation
What are the signs and symptoms of a mild blood transfusion reaction?
Signs and symptoms of a mild blood transfusion reaction:
- urticaria (hives)
- itching (pruritis)