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Flashcards in Blood Deck (317)
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241

Blood groups A, B, AB and O are formed by...

  • Further blood-type systems as wells as AB0
  • If there are no additional groups synthesised
    • → O group is default

242

What forms the A blood group antigen

N-acetyl-galactose-amine transferase enzyme

243

How is blood group O generated?

  • 0-gene
    • Supresses production of:
    • N-acetyl-galactose amine transferase
    • N-acetyl-galactosyl transferase
  • No A or B blood group is formed

244

What forms the B blood group antigen?

N-acetyl-galactosyl transferase

245

IgM type antibodies

  • Varieties of Hemagglutinine
  • Prevent AB0 antigens entering the blood stream after birth
    • if certain antigens not already present on RBCs
  • Incompatability:
    • Agglutination of RBCs by the serum
    • Hemolysis

246

AB0 blood type reactions

  • Determining of an unknown blood group
    • via agglutination
  • RBCs react with a serum containing specific antibodies
    • E.g Anti-A, Anti-B
  • Incompatibility observed, determining RBCs antigen type

247

Rh blood group - 1st pregancy

  • Rh negative mothers can be immunised by her foetus' Rh positive RBCs
  • The formed antibody isn't IgM-type, but IgG-type 
    • Crosses easier accross the placenta
    • via micro-injuries during delivery

248

Rh blood group - 2nd pregnancy

  • Small amount of RBCs enter mother's immune system
    • Stimulating anti-Rh antibodies
    • These dissolve foetal RBCs
  • Leads to erythroblastosis foetalis 
    • Jaundice
    • Death of foetus

249

Rh-incompatibility

  • Rh negative recipent gets RBCs from Rh positive donor
  • Recipient is immunised
  • IgG antibodies dissolve recipients RBCs
  • Second inappropriate blood transfusion can cause significant damage

250

 Highest blood type in europid race

0 (45% prevelance)

251

 Highest blood type in negrid race

0 (51% prevelance)

252

 Highest blood type in mongoloid race

A (38% prevelance)

253

How do animal blood groups differ to humans?

In animals:

  • No naturally formed antibodies against RBC-antigens of other individuals
  • Blood type antigens appear in the plasma too
  • Artificial antibody has hemolysing and not agglutinating character

254

Monovalent antibody

Specific against only a single antigen

255

RFLP

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

identifies individual DNA fingerprints

256

Describe the production of an antibody which only reacts with the C-blood type antigen

(With no specific antigen against the single C-group)

  1. Immunise animal2 with animal1's washed RBCs (A,B,C antigens)
  2. Animal2: only anti-B and anti-C is produced
  3. Washing with B RBC-s, Anti-B is removed
  4. Monovalent Anti-C serum remains

257

Number of blood group systems and antigen group factors in cattle

  • 13 Blood group systems
  • Approx. 100 group factors

258

Number of blood group systems and antigen group factors in sheep

  • 8 blood group systems
  • Approx 80 group factors

259

Number of blood group systems and antigen group factors in equine

  • 8 blood group systems
  • Approx 20 group factors

260

Number of blood group systems and antigen group factors in swine

  • 15 blood group systems
  • Approx 50 group factors

261

Number of blood group systems and antigen group factors in Dogs

  • 12 blood group systems
  • 13 group factors

262

Number of blood group systems and antigen group factors in cats

  • 1 blood group system
  • 2 group factors

263

Similarities of antigens in two of the the blood type systems

264

Chimeras

Individuals (once dizygotes) that during the foetal phase:

  • The hemopoietic progenitor cell migrated from one fetus to another
  • RBCs produced with the antigen structure similar to the original individual

This results in the same RBC and WBC antigen structure

265

How are chimeras identified?

Where one twin is positive and the other is negative

266

Freemartinism

  • Sterile female who was twins with a male
  • Testosterone of the male twin inhibits the formation of the fertile female
  • 10% chance of the female being fertile in the situation of being a twin to a male
  • Can be selected by blood type examination
    • Detection of XY type chromosomes
  • Economically viable during animal husbandry

267

Give an example of blood group production traits in cattle

  • B-system blood type
  • Production of milk lipids

268

Give an example of blood group production traits in swine

  • H blood type, PHI gene
  • Meat quality and stress sensitivity

269

Give an example of blood group production traits in sheep

  • 0 blood type, L antigen
  • Serum phosphatase level and low RBC potassium level

270

Meat from a stress sensitive swine produces...

Large amounts of exsudate after cutting

lower market and nutritional value