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Flashcards in Blood Deck (317)
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211

T-lymphocytes

  • Prouduced in thymus
  • Responsible for cellular immunity

212

B-lymphocytes

  • Site of production
  • Function

  • Bursa fabricii (bone marrow, embryonic liver and spleen)
  • Humoral immunity

213

Where are lymphocytes found?

In all tissues except for:

  • cornea
  • heart valve

214

The decrease in lymphocytes in the blood

Lymphopaenia

215

The increase in lymphocytes in the blood

Lymphocytosis

216

Function of B-lymphocytes

Produces immunoglobulins

217

Function of T-lymphocytes

  • Cellular immune response
  • Stimulation of humoral immune response

218

Function of '0' cells (NK cells)

Kills cells infected by tumour or virus

219

WBC development

  • Pre-colony-forming-cells (multipotent) can reproduce in any direction (RBC/WBC producing)
  • Direction committed and proliferable progenitor cells develop
  • Maturation into final blood cell type

220

During embryonic life, which cell type doesn't migrate to the bone marrow?

T-progenitor cell

221

Thrombocytes (Platelets)

  • In birds, platelets can act as phagocytes
  • 2-8x1011 pcs/L
  • Lifetime: 5-10 days
  • No nucleus
  • Smallest blood cell
  • Origin: Polycaryocyte giant cells (in red bone marrow)

222

Which types of granules are found in thrombocytes?

  • Alpha-granules
    • Store coagulation factors
  • Delta-granules
    • Store serotonin from the plasma

223

What prompts the release of granules from platelets?

Thrombocyte activating factors

224

Describe the morphology of the platelet

  • Plasma membrane:
    • wide glycocalix
    • Cell adhesion molecules (CAM)
  • Internal tubular system
    • Peroxidase
    • Prostaglandins
  • Lysosomes: Acidic hydrolases
  • Peroxisomes: Catalase

 

225

Function of the platelet actin cortex

  • Shrinks clots
  • Helps alpha granules vacate

226

Describe the function of the microtubular cortex

  • During the activation of the system
  • Cytoplasmic processes form on the platelet surface
    • Increases retractions
    • Increases efflux of coagulation factors

227

Describe blood groups

  • Antigens that appear on the surface of blood cells
  • Discovered by Karl Landsteiner
  • 15 different types in humans
  • Antibodies produced postnatally against non-posessed RBC antigens
    • Non-posessed RBCs are agglutinated

228

How are blood groups used in veterinary medicine

  • Parentage testing
  • Prediction of certain production trait selection
  • Prevention of certain illnesses

229

Why are blood transfusions in animals lest risky than in humans?

  • There are only a few antibodies agains RBC antigens
  • The antigens can be found in RBCs and plasma too
    • During transfusion: antibody is neutralised in plasma already
      • RBC-dissolving capacity therefore diminishes

230

Hemagglutinogens

  • RBC surface
  • Production of blood-agglutinating-antibody
    • Agglutinate RBCs with corresponding antigens
  • Blood type systems:
    • System X (2 antigens)
    • System Z (3 antigens)

231

Antigens found on the surface of RBCs are varieties of...

  • Glycoproteids
  • Glycolipids

232

Artificial hemagglutinins

  • Antibodies form after immunisation
  • Immunisation can be natural or artificial

233

Heterohemagglutinins

Agglutinate RBCs of other species

234

Isohemagglutinins

Agglutinate RBCs of the same species

235

Prevelance of Hemagglutinins

  • Early immunisation (postnatally)
  • Not present in newborns
  • Concentration of antibodies is constantly growing
  • Antibodies may disappear in the elderly

236

Give the two ways the RBC surface and plasma antibodies react

  • Agglutination (More common in humans)
  • Hemolysis (More common in animals)

Forms of incompatibility

237

Biochemical polymorphism

  • Structurally different to blood group antigens
  • Complete the same function
  • E.g Cattle transferrin polymorphism

238

Describe cattle transferrin polymorphism

  • 6 serums seperated on agarose gel
    • belong to cows of different genotypes
  • Transferrin shows a different pattern in the individuals (after seperation)
  • They're allotted into types A-E
  • Genetic differences observed between proteins
    • These differences are linked to production traits
    • Used in animal husbandry

239

H-antigen forms the basic structure of which blood system?

  • AB0
  • Common in all humans
    • Therefore no antibodies are formed against it

240

If there is no AB0 blood group, it is refered to as...

Bombay-group