Flashcards in Biology Class 1 Deck (45)
What are the 4 relevant macromolecules?
How are macromolecules formed?
Through dehydration synthesis/condensation (join two monomers and get water removed)
What are protein monomers?
Amino acids (20)
What bond do 2 amino acids form?
Which direction does protein synthesis occur in?
N-C synthesis because amino acid is added on the C terminus
What are the different protein structures?
Primary - a.a.
Secondary - alpha helix & beta pleated sheets (h-bonding between the backbone)
Tertiary - folding with side chain interactions WITHIN the polypeptide
Quaternary - Folding with side chain interactions BETWEEN different polypeptides
What are carbohydrate monomers?
3 Common Monosaccharides
3 Common Disaccharides
What is the chemical formula of monosaccharides
3 Common Polysaccharides
Difference between functions of carbohydrates and lipids
Short term energy storage vs long term storage
What is the monomer structure of lipids?
What is a saturated fatty acid?
Maximimum number of hydrogens are attached
What is a triglyceride formed with?
Glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acids
Forms ester bond through esterfication
What is a phospholipid composed of?
Glycerol + phosphate + 2 fatty acids
If a molecule has a polar & non-polar end, what is it called?
What is the function of phospholipid?
Formation of lipid bilayer thus, formation of lipid membrane
What is a terpene composed of?
At least 2 isoprene units
What is the function of terpenes?
Formation of ear wax
What is a terpenoid?
Modified version of terpene; vitamin A
What are the functions of cholesterol & its derivatives?
Bile salts (to help with fat digestion)
What is cholesterol composed of?
3 six -carbon rings + 1 five-carbon ring
ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
ΔH = PE
TΔS = KE
Definitions of ΔG
ΔG = 0 means it's in equilibrium
ΔG > 0 means it's nonspontaneous, endergonic
ΔG <0 means it's spontaneous, exergonic
What is the energy of activation?
Amount of energy needed to produce transition state
How can you make a reaction faster?
Add a catalyst which will decrease the energy of activation without changing ΔG & will stabilize the transition state
What are 3 characteristics of enzymes as physiological catalysts?
1. Not used in reaction
2. Must increase reaction rate
3. Very specific in what they catalyse
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy is constant