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Flashcards in Biology Class 1 Deck (45)
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1

What are the 4 relevant macromolecules?

Proteins
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids

2

How are macromolecules formed?

Through dehydration synthesis/condensation (join two monomers and get water removed)

3

What are protein monomers?

Amino acids (20)

4

What bond do 2 amino acids form?

Peptide bond

5

Which direction does protein synthesis occur in?

N-C synthesis because amino acid is added on the C terminus

6

What are the different protein structures?

Primary - a.a.
Secondary - alpha helix & beta pleated sheets (h-bonding between the backbone)
Tertiary - folding with side chain interactions WITHIN the polypeptide
Quaternary - Folding with side chain interactions BETWEEN different polypeptides

7

What are carbohydrate monomers?

Monosaccharides

8

3 Common Monosaccharides

Glucose
Fructose
Galactose

9

3 Common Disaccharides

Maltose
Sucrose
Lactose

10

What is the chemical formula of monosaccharides

C6H12O6

11

3 Common Polysaccharides

Starch
Cellulose
Glycogen

12

Difference between functions of carbohydrates and lipids

Short term energy storage vs long term storage

13

What is the monomer structure of lipids?

Hydrocarbons

14

What is a saturated fatty acid?

Maximimum number of hydrogens are attached

15

What is a triglyceride formed with?

Glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acids
Forms ester bond through esterfication

16

What is a phospholipid composed of?

Glycerol + phosphate + 2 fatty acids

17

If a molecule has a polar & non-polar end, what is it called?

Amphipathic

18

What is the function of phospholipid?

Formation of lipid bilayer thus, formation of lipid membrane

19

What is a terpene composed of?

At least 2 isoprene units

20

What is the function of terpenes?

Cholesterol
Formation of ear wax

21

What is a terpenoid?

Modified version of terpene; vitamin A

22

What are the functions of cholesterol & its derivatives?

Bile salts (to help with fat digestion)
Steroids
Cell membrame

23

What is cholesterol composed of?

3 six -carbon rings + 1 five-carbon ring

24

Thermodynamic Formula

ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
ΔH = PE
TΔS = KE

25

Definitions of ΔG

ΔG = 0 means it's in equilibrium
ΔG > 0 means it's nonspontaneous, endergonic
ΔG <0 means it's spontaneous, exergonic

26

What is the energy of activation?

Amount of energy needed to produce transition state

27

How can you make a reaction faster?

Add a catalyst which will decrease the energy of activation without changing ΔG & will stabilize the transition state

28

What are 3 characteristics of enzymes as physiological catalysts?

1. Not used in reaction
2. Must increase reaction rate
3. Very specific in what they catalyse

29

What is the first law of thermodynamics?

Energy is constant

30

What is the second law of thermodynamics?

Entropy tends to increase
- ΔS= entropy decreases
+ ΔS=entropy increases