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Flashcards in Biology Basic Science- Miller review Deck (84)
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1

What is a DNA topoisomerase?

unwinding of DNA for transcription

 

Topoisomerase-1 (scl-70) antibodies are seen in scleroderma and crest

2

what is translation?

building of a protein out of amino acids from mRNA template.

 

Antibodies to tRNA synthetase (anti-jo-1-antibiodies) are seen in dermatomyositis

3

what are centromeres?

they link the sister DNA

anticentromere antibodies are seen in Crest Syndrome

4

What does tumor supressor gene P53 do?

prevents entry into S phase (synthesis)

 

losing it opens the gate to synthesis

 

implicated in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma dn chondrosarcoma

5

pRB-1 Retinoblastoma protein

undergoes progressive cell cycle regulated phosphorylation

targets E2f: a transcription factor that regulates genes important for cell cycle control

6

Agarose Gel electrophoresis

Northern Blot: detects RNA

Western Blot: detects Protein

Southern Blot: Detects DNA

7

cytogenic analysis is used to dtect chromosomal translocations

t(x;18) synovial sarcoma

t(11;22) Ewings Sarcoma

t(2;13) Rhabdomyosarcoma

t(12:16) myxoid liposarcoma

t(12;22) in clear cell sarcoma

8

 

what is silencing RNA?

Blocks transcription of mRNA in order to study results of genes loss of function. 

9

How does the innate system recognize pathogens?

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on microbes are recognized by TLRs on innamte immune system cells (macrophages and dendritic cells)

There is an upregulation of NF_KB transcription factor, resulting in release of immune mediators (PRP enzymes)

Arachadonic acid is released from cell membtanes making prostaglandins and leukotrienes

10

What is the immununology term for anyphylaxitic shock?

IgE-type 1 hypersensitivity reaction

11

What are some disease examples of autoimmunity, where the epitopes are "self"?

Anti-SM- Lupus

Anti-RNP-mixed connective tissue

Anti-Scl-70-scleroderma

Anti-dsDNA-lupus/nephritis

anti-histone- drug induced lupus

anti-RO and anti LA--sjogrens

 

12

HLA gene on chromosome 6

can be rearranged to make an antigen specific receptor  on APCs for a billion or more different epitopes

associated with (PAIR)

Psoriasis

AS

Inflammatory bowel

Reiters Syndrome

 

13

Type 1 hypersensitivity

Mediated by IgE

mast cell degranulation-histamine

Food and drug allergies

14

Type II hypersensitivity

Mediated by IgM or IgG

cytotoxic, antibody mediated response

Heparin induced thrombocytopenia

Rheumatic Fever

Myasthesia Gravis

15

Type III hypersensitivity

Immune complex mediated ) antigen/antibody

 

SLE

RA

16

Type IV hypersensitivity

cell-mediated (no antibodies)

helper T-cells activate cytotoxic cells and macrophages to attack tissue

delayed response

TB/PPD test

Type 1 diabetes

MS

type iV response to orthopedic implants

17

IL-1

initiates acute phase response

induces bone loss through activation of osteoclasts via RANK/RANKL pathway

 

18

IL-6

induces synthesis of acute phase proteins from liver

is key to growth and survival of multiple myeloma cells

19

what makes staph resistant to PCN?

b-lactamase bla gene

20

what gene makes staph MRSA

penicllin-binding protein 2a 

mecA gene

21

FNB gene

fibronectin in staph increased adhesions to titanium

 

22

what is the technical name for biofilm?

glycocalyx-biofilm-slime-pollysachride capsule

23

what is the cytotoxin for ca MRSA?

Panton-Valentine leukocidin cytotoxin (PVL)

 

pore forming toxin specific to neutrophils

24

list some clinically relevant bacterial toxins?

Endotoxin-gram negative lipopolysaccharide

Exotoxin-Clostridium perfringens-lecithinase-tissue destroying alpha toxin

 

accounts for the myonecrosis and hemolysis of gangrene

 

25

Clostridium tentani toxin

tetanospasmin--blocks inhibitory nerves

lockjaw or muscle spasm

26

Clostridium botulism

blocks acetylchonine release

floppy baby

botox

27

Superantigens

activate 20% of T-cells

massive cytokine release

Group A strep_ M protein

S. auress-TSS toxin 1

 

28

MRSA

HA-

mecA gene

located on staphylococcal chromosome cassette mobile element-Carry IV

SCCmecIV

encodes for penicllin-binding protein 2A, which has low affinity for b-lactam antibiotics

 

29

Community acquired MRSA

Bacteris have smaller SCCmec genetic elements

almost all have PVL cytotoxin

gamma-hemolysin-a pore forming toxin that can lyse PMNs

 

At risk grous are athletes, IV drug abusers, homelss, military recruits, prisoners

30

Erysipelas

INfection of dermis and lymphatics

Group A streph

peau de orange

tx with PCN or erythromycin