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Flashcards in Biology Deck (152)
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1

What are carbohydrates, fats and proteins used by the body to do

Release energy and to build cells

2

What is needed for healthy functioning of the body

Mineral ions and vitamins in a small amount

3

When is a person malnourished

If they don't have a balanced diet

4

What can malnourishment lead to

Being underweight or overweight

5

What can an unbalanced diet lead to

Deficiency diseases or conditions such as Type II diabetes

6

When does a person lose mass

When the energy content of the food taken in is less than the amount of energy expended by the body

7

What is metabolic rate

The rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of your body are carried out

8

How can you increase the amount of energy expended by the body

Through exercise

9

What does the metabolic rate vary with

The amount of activity you do and the proportion of muscle to fat in your body

10

What can metabolic rate be affected by

Inherited factors

11

What can inherited factors affect

Our health e.g. cholesterol levels

12

Who are healthier than people who take little exercise

People who exercise regularly

13

What are pathogens

Microorganisms that cause infectious disease

14

How do bacteria and viruses make us feel ill

By reproducing rapidly inside the body and producing toxins

15

What do viruses damage

The cells in which they reproduce

16

How do white blood cells help to defend against pathogens

Ingesting pathogens
Producing antibodies, which destroy particular bacteria or viruses
Producing antitoxins, which counteracts the toxins released by the pathogen

17

How does the immune system kill a particular pathogen

By producing specific antibodies which can then lead to immunity

18

How is antibody production stimulated

Dead or inactive pathogens in vaccines

19

How is the spread of a pathogen reduced

If a large proportion of the population is immune to the pathogen

20

What did Semmelweiss recognise

The importance of hand washing in the prevention of spreading some infectious diseases

21

What did Semmelweiss insist

That doctors wash their hands before examining patients, and greatly reduced the number of deaths from infectious diseases in his hospital

22

What do painkillers do

Relieve symptoms of infectious diseases but do not kill the pathogen

23

What are antibiotics

Medicines that help cure bacterial disease by killing infectious bacteria inside the body

24

What can antibiotics not be used for

To kill viral pathogens, which live and reproduce inside cells

25

What should specific bacteria be treated by

Specific antibodies

26

What has the use of antibiotics greatly reduced

Deaths from infectious bacterial diseases

27

What has the over use and inappropriate use of antibiotics increased

The rate of development of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria

28

Why have many strains of bacteria, including MRSA, developed resistance to antibiotics

A result of natural selection

29

How can further resistance of bacteria be prevented

Avoiding overuse of antibiotics

30

What does the development of antibiotic – restraint strains of bacteria necessitate

The development of new antibiotics