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Flashcards in Biological organization Deck (33)
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1

nucleus

control center inside the cell, contains the cell's genetic DNA material and controls the cell's activities.

2

how many parts are their of the nucleus

four parts to the nucleus

3

nuclear membrane

proteins and lipids make it up semi-permeable Job: controls what enters and leaves the nucleus

4

nucleoplasm

gel-like substance made up of salts and proteins job: medium that contains two of the other nuclear structures

5

chromosomes

a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.

6

nucleolus

small region in the nucleus where the assembly of ribosomes begins. Func: Codes for the RNA

7

What do the genes code for?

enzymes

8

What does the enzyme do in terms of genes?

enzymes control the chemistry that brings about the approximate trait

9

cyctolosis

the streaming movement of a cytoplasm

10

cytoplasm

a thick solution that fills each cell and is enclosed by the cell membrane. It is mainly composed of water, salts, and proteins.

11

mitochondria

releases energy and produces ATP using energy stored in food molecules POWERHOUSE

12

ribosomes

small particles in the cell where proteins made Rna and protein are assembled, or protein synthesis

13

endoplasmic reticulum

a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.

14

rough ER

packages proteins to be used in the cell when needed has ribosomes attached

15

smooth ER

package proteins in the cell to be used when needed does not have any ribosomes attached

16

Golgi body

stack of membranes in the cell which enemies attach carbohydrates and lips to proteins

17

lysosomes

filled with digestive enzymes that surround and break down worn out cell parts

18

cell membrane

thin flexible outer layer that protects and surrounds the cell and REGULATES what enters and leaves the cell

19

cell wall

a strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria

20

chromosomes

a threadlike structures in the nucleus that contains the genetic information passed from one generation to the next

21

chloroplast

uses energy from the sunlight to make energy-rich food molecules by photosynthesis

22

vacuole

stores water+salt+proteins+carbohydrates

23

centrosomes

an organelle near the nucleus of a cell that contains the centrioles (in animal cells) and from which the spindle fibers develop in cell division.

24

plastids

are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the plant cell

25

chromoplast

contains any non green pigment

26

xanthophyll

the typical yellow pigments of leaves. These are oxygenated carotenoids that are synthesized within the plastids.

27

What are examples of chromoplasts

red roses, carotenes

28

leucoplasts

colorless with no pigments at all, stored in starches

29

cuticle

The outermost, noncellular, protective covering of certain organisms. In plants it is the wax over leaves and in animals it is cynin

30

True or false: The cell wall is impermeable

false: It is permeable