Flashcards in Biological Molecules (Chapter 2) Deck (146)
What is a biochemical?
A chemical involved in a life process
What is metabolism?
The name for all biochemical reactions in a living organism
What are anabolic reactions?
Reactions that build up more complex molecules
What are catabolic reactions?
Reactions that break bigger molecules into smaller components
What is an organic compound?
A compound containing carbon and hydrogen as well as other elements
What is the monomer for carbohydrates?
What is the suffix that suggests a substance is a sugar?
What are carbohydrates made up of?
C, H and O
What ratio are H and O present in carbohydrates?
What is the general molecular formula for a carbohydrate?
What is the general molecular formula of a monosaccharide?
What is a residue?
What's left of monomer when it has joined up with other monomers to make a polymer
Give examples of types of monosaccharides
Triose e.g. aldotriose
Pentose e.g. ribose
Hexose e.g. glucose, fructose
What characteristics do monosaccharides have?
Polar and sweet
What are the main functions of carbohydrates?
Cellular respiration, storage, cell structure
What are the main functions of monosaccharides?
They act as respiratory substrates and as monomers for the anabolic synthesis of more complex molecules
What is a respiratory substrate?
A molecule that can be used to release energy from respiration
What are the three forms of glucose (learn diagrams as well)?
Straight chain, alpha ring, beta ring
What makes alpha and beta glucose different structurally?
The position of the OH group on the carbon-1 atom - if it is below the plane, it is alpha glucose, if it is above the plane it is beta glucose
What is maltose made up of?
Glucose and glucose
What is sucrose made up of?
Glucose and fructose
What is lactose made up of?
Glucose and galactose
What is the reaction that combines monosaccharides called?
Condensation reaction / condensation polymerisation
Why is a condensation reaction called so?
Because a water molecule is formed
What is the bond between two monosaccharides called?
A glycosidic bond
When is a glycosidic bond formed?
When two adjacent OH groups on different monosaccharides line up and one of them takes an O atom from the other to release a water molecule and then remaining O forms the glycosidic bond
How are polysaccharides formed?
Many condensation reactions taking place (condensation polymerisation), making many glycosidic bonds
What is the reverse reaction of condensation?
Hydrolysis - the addition of a water molecule
What is the bond in maltose?
alpha 1,4 glycosidic bond