Biological Molecules (Chapter 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biological Molecules (Chapter 2) Deck (146)
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1

What is a biochemical?

A chemical involved in a life process

2

What is metabolism?

The name for all biochemical reactions in a living organism

3

What are anabolic reactions?

Reactions that build up more complex molecules

4

What are catabolic reactions?

Reactions that break bigger molecules into smaller components

5

What is an organic compound?

A compound containing carbon and hydrogen as well as other elements

6

What is the monomer for carbohydrates?

Monosaccharide

7

What is the suffix that suggests a substance is a sugar?

-ose

8

What are carbohydrates made up of?

C, H and O

9

What ratio are H and O present in carbohydrates?

2:1

10

What is the general molecular formula for a carbohydrate?

Cx(H2O)y

11

What is the general molecular formula of a monosaccharide?

(CH2O)x

12

What is a residue?

What's left of monomer when it has joined up with other monomers to make a polymer

13

Give examples of types of monosaccharides

Triose e.g. aldotriose
Pentose e.g. ribose
Hexose e.g. glucose, fructose

14

What characteristics do monosaccharides have?

Polar and sweet

15

What are the main functions of carbohydrates?

Cellular respiration, storage, cell structure

16

What are the main functions of monosaccharides?

They act as respiratory substrates and as monomers for the anabolic synthesis of more complex molecules

17

What is a respiratory substrate?

A molecule that can be used to release energy from respiration

18

What are the three forms of glucose (learn diagrams as well)?

Straight chain, alpha ring, beta ring

19

What makes alpha and beta glucose different structurally?

The position of the OH group on the carbon-1 atom - if it is below the plane, it is alpha glucose, if it is above the plane it is beta glucose

20

What is maltose made up of?

Glucose and glucose

21

What is sucrose made up of?

Glucose and fructose

22

What is lactose made up of?

Glucose and galactose

23

What is the reaction that combines monosaccharides called?

Condensation reaction / condensation polymerisation

24

Why is a condensation reaction called so?

Because a water molecule is formed

25

What is the bond between two monosaccharides called?

A glycosidic bond

26

When is a glycosidic bond formed?

When two adjacent OH groups on different monosaccharides line up and one of them takes an O atom from the other to release a water molecule and then remaining O forms the glycosidic bond

27

How are polysaccharides formed?

Many condensation reactions taking place (condensation polymerisation), making many glycosidic bonds

28

What is the reverse reaction of condensation?

Hydrolysis - the addition of a water molecule

29

What is the bond in maltose?

alpha 1,4 glycosidic bond

30

What is starch made from?

Amylose (most common) and amylopectin (less common

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