Alexander the Great
Son of Philip II and remembered for the Greek conquest of the Persian Empire before his sudden death in 323 B.C.
Student of Plato and third of the great Greek philosophers, influential in a variety of areas, from ethics to biology.
Leading politician in Athens in the generation after the Persian Wars.
Constitutional reformer whose innovations included the Council of 500, the 10 tribes and system of demes and trittyes .
the leading Athenian politician from c. 429–422 B.C.
Cyrus the Great
Persian king who ruled from 558–530 B.C., conquered the neighboring Medes and brought about the expansion of Persian power from Afghanistan to the Ionian coast.
Persian king whose army was defeated at Marathon in 490 B.C.
Persian king defeated by Alexander the Great. The last Achaemenid king of Persia.
God of Ecstasy, known to the Greeks as the One who Binds and Releases. Tragedy was performed in his honor.
Sir Arthur Evans
British excavator of Cnossus and proponent of the view that Minoan Crete had colonized the mainland, giving rise to Mycenaean civilization.
Hippias and Hipparchus
Sons of Pisistratus. Hippias ruled from 528/527 to 510 B.C.
One of the leaders of the factional strife afflicting Athens from 510–508 B.C. Isagoras was supported by the Spartans, but defeated by his rival, Cleisthenes.
Spartan king at the time of the Persian invasions, he died at Thermopylae (480 B.C.).
Legendary law-giver of Sparta.
Popular late 4th-century playwright whose New Comedy blended romance, comedy, and domestic situations.
Unwilling and unlucky Athenian commander during the Sicilian Expedition
Leading Athenian politician and general from c. 450–429 B.C.
King of Macedon, 359–336 B.C., and responsible for the unification of Macedon, its expansion, and the conquest of southern Greece.
Sixth century tyrant of Athens, responsible for unifying the Athenians and encouraging prosperity.
Student of Socrates and perhaps the most influential of the Greek philosophers, especially associated with the theory of forms.
Best known of the sophists, he advocated a form of agnosticism.
German excavator whose work on Ithaca and at Troy and Mycenae constituted the first major excavations of the Aegean Bronze Age.
Provocative Athenian philosopher who was executed in 399 B.C. on charges of impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens.
Athenian lawgiver responsible for wide-ranging political and economic reforms.
Athenian leader at the time of the Persian invasions, he was remembered for convincing the Greeks to stay and fight at Salamis.
Athenian gentleman, soldier, and writer whose literary works included history, biography, and political pamphlets, as well as instruction manuals on cavalry tactics, hunting, and household management.
Persian king whose invasion of Greece in 480–479 B.C. was defeated at Salamis and Plataea.