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Flashcards in Biochemistry/Nutrition Deck (417)
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1

What is vitamin B1? What is the main molecule where vitamin B1 is found?

thiamine

thiamine pyrophosphate

2

What is vitamin B2? What are the main two molecules that vitamin B2 is found?

riboflavin

FAD and FMN

3

What is vitamin B5? What is the main molecule where vitamin B5 is found?

pantothenic acid

co-enzyme A

4

What is vitamin B6? What is the main molecule where vitamin B6 is found? What type of enzymatic rxn is B6 involved in?

pyridoxal phosphate

PLP

aminotransferase

5

What is vitamin B7?

biotin

6

What is vitamin B9?

folate

7

What is vitamin B12?

cobalamin

8

What is another name for vitamin A?

retinol

9

What vitamin is necessary for differentiation of epithelial tissues?

vitamin A

10

Deficiency of what vitamin can cause corneal degeneration?

vitamin A

11

What type of enzyme is vitamin B1 needed for?

dehydrogenase

12

What are four dehydrogenases vitamin B1 is necessary for?

1. α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

2. transketolase

3. PDH

4. branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase

13

Wernicke-Korsakoff affects what two structures in the brain?

Mamilary bodies

Medial Dorsal Nucleus of Thalamus

14

B1 deficiency impairs the breakdown of what metabolic product?

glucose

15

What two tissues are affected first by Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome?

brain and heart

16

How are WK and Beriberi diagnosed?

increased transketolase activity of RBCs after B1 infusion

17

What are two signs of vitamin B2 deficiency?

Cheliosis and Corneal vascularization

18

What type of reaction is B2 used in?

redox

19

What B vitamin is derived from tryptophan?

niacin

20

The synthesis of niacin requires what two B vitamins?

B2 and B6

21

What B vitamin can be used to treat dyslipidemia? What is raised and lowered?

B3

VLDL = lowered

HDL = raised

22

What amino acid is not absorbed in Hartnup disease? What B vitamin is administered to relieve the effects?

tryptophan

Niacin

23

Deficiency of what two products can lead to pellagra?

Niacin or Tryptophan

24

Malignant carcinoid consumes what amino acid in excess?

Tryptophan

25

A carcinoid tumor is derived from what type of cell? Where do most carcinoid tumors arise?

neuroendocrine

midgut

26

What neurotransmitter do carcinoid tumors release? What amino acid is this neurotransmitter derived from?

serotonin

serotonin derived from Trp

27

Deficiency of what vitamin can lead to adrenal insufficiency?

B5

28

What three type of reactions is vitamin B6 used for?

transamination

decarboxylation

glycogen phosphorylase

29

Name a common food with a large supply of avidin? What B vitamin can this cause a decrease i?

raw egg whites

B7 (biotin)

30

Biotin is necessary for what type of reactions?

carboxylation