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Flashcards in Bio Class 9 Deck (31)
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1

Excretory Organs

Colon
- digests solid waste

Liver
- digests hydrophobic waste (waste not absorbed or dissolved in blood)

Kidney
- digests hydrophilic waste
- deals with urine production & excretion
- BP regulation, fluid osmotic balance, pH regulation, activation of vitamin D, stimulating RBC through producing erythropoiten, filtration

2

Urinary Organs

Adrenal gland (found on top of kidneys)
Kidney (2)
Ureter
Bladder
Urethra

3

Internal vs Extern urinary sphincter

Internal
- involuntary
- smooth muscles

External
- voluntary
- skeletal muscle (striated)

4

Functional Unit of kidney

nephron
- has millions of nephrons

5

If reabsorbing water, is a shallow or deep nephron better?

Deep because it will increase in osmolarity the deeper you go into medulla

6

Renal pelvis

Urine is dumped

7

Ureter

Connects the kidney to bladder

8

Reabsorption vs secretion

Reabsorption
- nephron into blood

Secretion
- blood into nephron

9

Filtration

moving substance across membrane using pressure

10

Reabsorption

Moving substance from filtrate to blood
- glucose, water, amino acids are reabsorbed
- Na+, HCO3- are reabsorbed *
- K+, H+ are reabsorbed*

* depends on body's need

11

Secretion

Moving substance from blood to filtrate
- drugs, toxins, creatine
- Na+, HCO3- are secreted *
- K+, H+ are secreted*

* depends on body's need

12

If the body is acidic, what will it secrete? What will it absorb?

It will secrete H+ and absorb HCO3-

13

Creatine

Waste product from muscle metabolism
- creatine formation and secretion is constant so you can use it to measure function of kidney

14

What happens in the nephron?

1. Blood coming into glomerulus via afferent arteriole and exits via efferent arteriole
2. The blood plasma is filtered out and enters the capsule because of the pressure and is not called the filtrate
3. Enters proximal convulted tubule which is the main reabsorption and secretion site, relatively unregulated
4. Then enters descending loop of henle which is where water reabsorption occurs and it is impermeable to Na+; therefore osmolarity increases
5. Then enters ascending loop of henle which is where Na+ reabsorption occurs and is impermeable to water so osmolarity decreases
6. Then enters distal convulted tubule which is specialized reabsorption and secretion
- 2 main hormones but mostly aldosterone (which increases Na+ reabsorption and k+ secretion)
7. Then exits through collecting duct where ADH/vasopressin reabsorbs water

15

Relationship between:
urine & blood
volume and concentration

If urine volume increases, blood volume decreases BUT urine concentration decreases and blood concentration increases

16

Renin angiotensin system

- Angiotensinogen is a zymogen that is inactive and produced by liver
- When BP is low, kidney will release renin which activated angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
- Then you have the lungs secreting angiotensin converting enzyme which will then cause angiotensin I to make angiotensin II
- as a result you will have vessel constriction (which means BP increases) AND increase in aldosterone release (Which means more Na+ in blood = increase in ADH to have more water = more blood volume = bp increases)

17

Atrial natriuretic peptide/factor

Opposite of Renin angiotensin system
- High BP so atria is stretched
- RA then releases ANP
- As a result it inhibits Aldosterone release (so decreases BP) AND vessel dilation (so decreases BP) AND inhibits renin release (blocks the JGA so decreases BP)

18

pH regulation

Renal regulation of blood pH is slow so lungs regulate blood pH

19

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

contact point between afferent arteriole & distal convuluted tubule

Afferent arteriole
- baroreceptors
- release of renin if BP is low

Distal convuluted tubule
- chemoreceptors

20

Alimentary Canal

"GI tract"
- tube from mouth to anus

21

Accessory Organs

- digestive role but not part of alimentary canal
- liver, gallbladder, pancrease

22

Liver

produces bile & emulsifies fat
- bile itself does not digest the fat but it breaks the fat into pieces so that lipase can work on it more

23

Gallbladder

Stores and concentrates bile made by liver
- if you don't have gall bladder it's okay, it'll just make digestion harder in the beginning but bile duct will enlarge after

24

Pancreas

Endocrine Role
- produces insulin and glucagon

Exocrine Role
- produces digestive enzymes
- produces bicarb (to neutralize food coming from stomach which is acidic)

25

Digestive enzymes

Lipases - digests lipids/fat
Amylase - digests carbohydrates, specifically starch
Protease - digests amino acids/proteins
Nuclease - digests nucleic acids

26

Alimentary Canal Wall

Lumen (where food is) --> mucosa (epithelial tissue) --> submucosa (connective tissue) --> circular muscle tissue (contracts to decrease diameter of small intestine) --> longitudinal muscle tissue (contracts to shorten small intestine) --> serosa (connective tissue

27

Mouth
- function, structure, exocrine, endocrine

Function
- grinds & moistens food
- mostly starch digestion, little bit lipid digestion

Structure
- Teeth
- Tongue
- Salivary glands (which produces saliva)

Exocrine
- saliva: mucus & water
- lingual lipase: digests lipids
- amylase: digests starch
- lysozyme: antibacterial (breaks down bacteria cell wall)

Endocrine
NONE

28

Esophogus
- function, structure, exocrine, endocrine

Function
- tube from mouth to stomach

Structure
- Starts with skeletal then smooth muscle (skeletal because initiates swallowing which is voluntary)
- Cardiac sphincter (prevents acid reflux between esophogus and stomach)

Exocrine
NONE

Endocrine
NONE

29

Stomach
- function, structure, exocrine, endocrine

Function
- store food, acid hydrolysis, grinding

Structure
1. Gastric Gland - spread out on walls of stomach (chief cells, parietal cells, mucus cells
2. Pyloric Sphincter - between the stomach & SI; regulates entry of food into small intestine

Exocrine
- Chief cells release pepsinogen which as it climbs up gastric gland it comes into contact with HCl released by parietal cells
- this activates pepsinogen to pepsin
- to prevent work of pepsin on wall, mucus cells produce mucus because otherwise pepsin will digest stomach wall and cause bleeding and pain

Endocrine
G cells produce the hormone called gastrin
- increases release of food from stomach to small intestine
- stimulates gastric gland
- trigger to shut it off is too much food in SI and if pH is acidic because don't want to release more acid into stomach

30

Small intestine
- function, structure, exocrine, endocrine

Function
- digestion & absorption

Structure
- Duodenum (5%), Jejunum (40%, Ileum (55%)
- Increase in SA (plicae which have villi, each villus has microvilli which have brush boarders)

Exocrine
- Trypsinogen --> Trypsin in presence of enterokinase
- brush boarder enzyme: disaccharidases & dipeptidases

Endocrine
- Enterogastrone: decreases release of food from stomach to small intestine (trigger is full small intestine)
- secretin: increases bicarb release (trigger is if pH is acidic)
- CCK: increases bile release (trigger is fat)