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Flashcards in Bio Class 8 Deck (43)
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1

Endocrine vs Exocrine glands

Endocrine
- product: hormones
- location: blood stream
- ducts: no ducts, straight into capillary network

Exocrine
- product: everything but hormones, mucus, sweat, stomach acid, etc
- location: body surface/cavity
- ducts: yes except for mucus cells

2

Steroids vs Peptides
- Made from?
- Location of receptor?
- Mechanism of action?
- Speed of effects?
- Longevity of effects?

Steroid
- made from cholestrol
- receptor inside cell
- binds to DNA and modifies transcription
- slow effect but more permanent
- eg. testosterone, progesterone, estrogen

Peptide
- made from amino acids
- receptor on surface
- acts as a secondary messenger
- fast effect but temporary

3

What is the fastest hormone?

epinephrine

4

Hormone release

Neuronal
- neurons trigger the release of hormones (eg. adrenaline)
Hormonal
- hormones trigger release of hormones (eg. Tropic hormones:ACTH)
Humoral
- particles in blood trigger release of hormones (eg. high glucose releases insulin)

5

Anterior vs posterior pituitary (characteristics)

Anterior
- produces 6 hormones: Tropic - FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, direct hormone- Prolactin, GH
- Has glandular tissue
- also known as "adenohypophysis"
- hormones are made and released

Posterior
- produces 2 hormones: vasopressin (adh), oxytocin
- known as "neurohypophysis"
- has nervous tissue
- hormones are stored & released

6

Anterior pituitary process

Hormone-making cells that produce hormone and travels via capillary networks that are connected by portal vein
- every hormone released from anterior pituitary has a release hormone from hypothalamus

7

Posterior pituitary process

Neuron makes hormones and axon will start in hypothalamus and release in posterior pituitary

8

Arteries vs Veins
- pressure, how it moves, muscular walls, elasticity

Arteries
- high pressure because blood is pushed out
- blood moves by forward momentum
- has muscular walls so can direct blood wherever needed in body
- is elastic so can regain shape after stretching out

Veins
- low pressure
- blood moves by anything that squishes veins (eg. skeletal muscle contracting)
- no muscular walls or elasticity
- has valves to prevent back flow when muscles relax

9

Capillaries

Exchange of nutrients and waste, very thin

10

What is blood called when it's in the...
lymphatic system?
in tissues without cells?
inside veins & arteries

lymph
interstitial fluid
plasm

11

Lymphatic system

When blood exits arteries, osmosis will bring it back in through the vein but there's a lot of blood that exits so it goes through lymph system
- the lymph node is a concentrated area of WBC which monitors infections

12

Flow of blood

1.From body you get deoxygenated blood that enters the right atrium through the superior/inferior vena cava

2. The blood goes from RA to RV through the tricuspid atrioventricular valve

3. Blood goes from RV to lungs through pulmonary artery by passing the pulmonary semilunar valve

4. Blood reaches lungs & gets oxygenated

5. Blood enters LA through pulmonary veins

6. Oxygenated blood goes from LA to LV by passing the bicuspid (mitral) AV valve

7. From LV to go to rest of body it passes the aortic semilunar valve through the aorta

13

Why is the LV more thick?

Blood needs higher pressure because being pumped to rest of the body which is further apart than pumping to eg. lungs

14

Lub Dup sound

Lub - where systole begins; AV valves close

Dup - where distole begins; Semilunar valves close

1. Contraction of atria will push blood down and almost immediately the ventricle will start contracting.
2. To ensure no back flow of blood, AV valves close
3. Then pushed through the semilunar valves and when it relaxes it will close too

15

Systole vs Diastole

Systole- artery is contracted
Diastole - artery is relaxed

16

BP

Systole/Diastole
(Pressure of artery when contracted / pressure of artery when relaxed)

17

BP is directly proportional to...

Cardiac output
Peripheral resistance

18

Cardiac output

Stroke volume x HR
(vol/beat) x (beat/min)

19

How to change stroke volume

1. Change the blood volume
2. Change activity level
3. Change posture

20

Frank-Starling law

More blood in --> heart stretching --> heart contracting --> more blood out

21

Peripheral resistance

How hard it is to get the blood through vessels
Vessels dilate = flow will increase = PR will decrease = bp will decrease

Vessels constrict = flow will decrease = PR will increase = bp will increase

22

Tetany

As ap builds up, you achieve tetany

23

Why do you not want tetany in cardiac muscle cells but in skeletal muscle cells?

You want to be able to hold yourself with extended skeletal contractions at extended periods of time

24

Autorhythmic cells

known as pace makers
- found in the SA node and then will generate AP
- will transmit stimulus to LA and RA forcing it to push into ventricles via contractions
- will pass through AV, which will delay it a bit to allow atria to contract first
- will go through bundle branches in RV then purkinje fibers in LV where it will then be pumped bottom up in ventricle to cardiac muscle cells

25

Reasons why conduction system is important

1. Atria and ventricle cannot communicate electrically, only through gap junction so need conduction system
2. AV node delays impulse allowing atria to contract first
3. Impulse travels to bottom of heart before entering ventricular muscle, allowing ventricle to contract from bottom to top

26

Blood composition

Plasma (54%)
- water, glucose, lipoproteins, plasma proteins, hormones, wastes
Leukocyte (1%)
- WBC and platelettes
Hematocrit (45%)
- RBC

27

Blood Gas Transport

- oxygen is non-polar so only 3% dissolves in blood plasm
- the 97% transports via hemoglobin
- Hb goes to lungs, fills up with oxygen then goes to tissue & unloads 30% of oxygen

28

Hemoglobin

Has 4 polypeptides which have co-operative binding
- Hb has a higher affinity for oxygen in lungs vs releases oxygen it decreases affinity

29

Co-operative binding

When 1 polypeptide binds to hemoglobin, the affinity of other polypeptides to bind oxygen

30

Co2 transport

- Carbon dioxide is non-polar so it won't completely dissolve
- 7% dissolves in plasma, 20% on Hb
- 73% converted to bicarb and dissolved in plasma

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-